Lopsidedness of self-consistent galaxies caused by the external field effect of clusters
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Adopting Schwarzschild's orbit-superposition technique, we construct a series of self-consistent galaxy models, embedded in the external field of galaxy clusters in the framework of Milgrom's MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). These models represent relatively massive ellipticals with a Hernquist radial profile at various distances from the cluster center. Using N-body simulations, we perform a first analysis of these models and their evolution. We find that self-gravitating axisymmetric density models, even under a weak external field, lose their symmetry by instability and generally evolve to triaxial configurations. A kinematic analysis suggests that the instability originates from both box and nonclassified orbits with low angular momentum. We also consider a self-consistent isolated system that is then placed in a strong external field and allowed to evolve freely. This model, just like the corresponding equilibrium model in the same external field, eventually settles to a triaxial equilibrium as well, but has a higher velocity radial anisotropy and is rounder. The presence of an external field in the MOND universe generically predicts some lopsidedness of galaxy shapes.
Wu , X , Wang , Y , Feix , M & Zhao , H S 2017 , ' Lopsidedness of self-consistent galaxies caused by the external field effect of clusters ' , Astrophysical Journal , vol. 844 , no. 2 , 130 . https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa7b8a
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