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dc.contributor.authorAllritz, Matthias
dc.contributor.authorMcEwen, Emma Suvi
dc.contributor.authorCall, Josep
dc.identifier.citationAllritz , M , McEwen , E S & Call , J 2021 , ' Chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) show subtle signs of uncertainty when choices are more difficult ' , Cognition , vol. 214 , 104766 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 274588490
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: a2033a58-9233-43e2-9632-d26ae3bfa7c8
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:A5E06135BA4D1E512BEBB75C94A96804
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85106550870
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8597-8336/work/95418570
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000678531500005
dc.descriptionThis research was supported by the European Research Council under the European Union's Seventh Framework Program ( FP7/2007-2013 )/ERC grant agreement no 609819, SOMICS.en
dc.description.abstractHumans can tell when they find a task difficult. Subtle uncertainty behaviors like changes in motor speed and muscle tension precede and affect these experiences. Theories of animal metacognition likewise stress the importance of endogenous signals of uncertainty as cues that motivate metacognitive behaviors. However, while researchers have investigated second-order behaviors like information seeking and declining difficult trials in nonhuman animals, they have devoted little attention to the behaviors that express the cognitive conflict that gives rise to such behaviors in the first place. Here we explored whether three chimpanzees would, like humans, show hand wavering more when faced with more difficult choices in a touch screen transitive inference task. While accuracy was very high across all conditions, all chimpanzees wavered more frequently in trials that were objectively more difficult, demonstrating a signature behavior which accompanies experiences of difficulty in humans. This lends plausibility to the idea that feelings of uncertainty, like other emotions, can be studied in nonhuman animals. We propose to routinely assess uncertainty behaviors to inform models of procedural metacognition in nonhuman animals.
dc.rightsCopyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
dc.subjectEpistemic emotionsen
dc.subjectFeelings of uncertaintyen
dc.subjectProcedural metacognitionen
dc.subjectTransitive inferenceen
dc.subjectQL Zoologyen
dc.titleChimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) show subtle signs of uncertainty when choices are more difficulten
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.sponsorEuropean Research Councilen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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