An ultra-short-period transiting super-Earth orbiting the M3 dwarf TOI-1685
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Dynamical histories of planetary systems, as well as the atmospheric evolution of highly irradiated planets, can be studied by characterizing the ultra-short-period planet population, which the TESS mission is particularly well suited to discover. Here, we report on the follow-up of a transit signal detected in the TESS sector 19 photometric time series of the M3.0 V star TOI-1685 (2MASS J04342248+4302148). We confirm the planetary nature of the transit signal, which has a period of Pb = 0.6691403−0.0000021+0.0000023 d, using precise radial velocity measurements taken with the CARMENES spectrograph. From the joint photometry and radial velocity analysis, we estimate the following parameters for TOI-1685 b: a mass of Mb = 3.78−0.63+0.63 M⊕, a radius of Rb = 1.70−0.07+0.07 R⊕, which together result in a bulk density of ρb = 4.21−0.82+0.95 g cm−3, and an equilibrium temperature of Teq = 1069−16+16 K. TOI-1685 b is the least dense ultra-short-period planet around an M dwarf known to date. TOI-1685 b is also one of the hottest transiting super-Earth planets with accurate dynamical mass measurements, which makes it a particularly attractive target for thermal emission spectroscopy. Additionally, we report with moderate evidence an additional non-transiting planet candidate in the system, TOI-1685 [c], which has an orbital period of Pc = 9.02−0.12+0.10 d.
Bluhm , P , Palle , E , Molaverdikhani , K , Kemmer , J , Hatzes , A P , Kossakowski , D , Stock , S , Caballero , J A , Lillo-Box , J , Bejar , V J S , Soto , M G , Amado , P J , Brown , P , Cadieux , C , Cloutier , R , Collins , K A , Collins , K I , Cortes-Contreras , M , Doyon , R , Dreizler , S , Espinoza , N , Fukui , A , Gonzalez-Alvarez , E , Henning , T , Horne , K , Jeffers , S V , Jenkins , J M , Jensen , E L N , Kaminski , A , Kielkopf , J F , Kusakabe , N , Kuerster , M , Lafreniere , D , Luque , R , Murgas , F , Montes , D , Morales , J C , Narita , N , Passegger , V M , Quirrenbach , A , Schoefer , P , Reffert , S , Reiners , A , Ribas , I , Ricker , G R , Seager , S , Schweitzer , A , Schwarz , R P , Tamura , M , Trifonov , T , Vanderspek , R , Winn , J , Zechmeister , M & Zapatero Osorio , M R 2021 , ' An ultra-short-period transiting super-Earth orbiting the M3 dwarf TOI-1685 ' , Astronomy and Astrophysics , vol. 650 , A78 . https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202140688
Astronomy and Astrophysics
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DescriptionFunding: We acknowledge financial support from the Agencia Estatal de Investigación of the Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades and the ERDF through projects PID2019-109522GB-C5[1:4]/AEI/10.13039/501100011033, PGC2018-098153-B-C33, and the Centre of Excellence “Severo Ochoa” and “María deMaeztu” awards to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (SEV-2015-0548), Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709), and Centro de Astro-biología (MDM-2017-0737), the Generalitat de Catalunya/CERCA programme,“la Caixa” Foundation (100010434), European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 847648 (LCF/BQ/PI20/11760023), a University Research Support Grant from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, JSPS KAKENHI (JP15H02063, JP18H01265, JP18H05439, JP18H05442, and JP22000005), JSTPRESTO (JPMJPR1775), UK Science and Technology Facilities Council (ST/R000824/1), and NASA (NNX17AG24G).
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