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dc.contributor.authorPal, Ranjana
dc.contributor.authorBhattacharya, Tapajit
dc.contributor.authorQureshi, Qamar
dc.contributor.authorBuckland, Stephen T.
dc.contributor.authorSathyakumar, Sambandam
dc.identifier.citationPal , R , Bhattacharya , T , Qureshi , Q , Buckland , S T & Sathyakumar , S 2021 , ' Using distance sampling with camera traps to estimate the density of group-living and solitary mountain ungulates ' , Oryx , vol. FirstView .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 274300400
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: eab70ea0-d83c-4fb8-a99c-9ffdbd0a1c43
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85105198594
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-9939-709X/work/95041844
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000692754900017
dc.descriptionThis work is part of a project initiated under the National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem (NMSHE) Programme funded by the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India (grant no.: DST/SPLICE/CCP/NMSHE/TF-2/WII/2014[G]). The Miriam Rothschild Travel Bursary Programme provided funding for a 4-week internship for R. Pal with S.T. Buckland at St Andrews University, UK.en
dc.description.abstractThroughout the Himalaya, mountain ungulates are threatened by hunting for meat and body parts, habitat loss, and competition with livestock. Accurate population estimates are important for conservation management but most of the available methods to estimate ungulate densities are difficult to implement in mountainous terrain. Here, we tested the efficacy of the recent extension of the point transect method, using camera traps for estimating density of two mountain ungulates: the group-living Himalayan blue sheep or bharal Pseudois nayaur and the solitary Himalayan musk deer Moschus leucogaster. We deployed camera traps in 2017-2018 for the bharal (summer: 21 locations; winter: 25) in the trans-Himalayan region (3,000-5,000 m) and in 2018-2019 for the musk deer (summer: 30 locations; winter: 28) in subalpine habitats (2,500-3,500 m) in the Upper Bhagirathi basin, Uttarakhand, India. Using distance sampling with camera traps, we estimated the bharal population to be 0.51 ± SE 0.1 individuals/km2 (CV = 0.31) in summer and 0.64 ± SE 0.2 individuals/km2 (CV = 0.37) in winter. For musk deer, the estimated density was 0.4 ± SE 0.1 individuals/km2 (CV = 0.34) in summer and 0.1 ± SE 0.05 individuals/km2 (CV = 0.48) in winter. The high variability in these estimates is probably a result of the topography of the landscape and the biology of the species. We discuss the potential application of distance sampling with camera traps to estimate the density of mountain ungulates in remote and rugged terrain, and the limitations of this method.
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Presson behalf of Fauna & Flora International. This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en
dc.subjectCamera trappingen
dc.subjectDensity estimatesen
dc.subjectMusk deeren
dc.subjectPoint transect methoden
dc.subjectUpper Bhagirathi basinen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectGE Environmental Sciencesen
dc.subjectEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematicsen
dc.subjectNature and Landscape Conservationen
dc.titleUsing distance sampling with camera traps to estimate the density of group-living and solitary mountain ungulatesen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Mathematics and Statisticsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.St Andrews Sustainability Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Research into Ecological & Environmental Modellingen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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