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dc.contributor.authorReindl, Eva
dc.contributor.authorParkash, Divya
dc.contributor.authorVoelter, Christoph Johannes
dc.contributor.authorSeed, Amanda Madeleine
dc.identifier.citationReindl , E , Parkash , D , Voelter , C J & Seed , A M 2021 , ' Thinking inside the box : mental manipulation of working memory contents in 3- to 7-year-old children ' , Cognitive Development , vol. 59 , 101068 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 274399617
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: ceefe212-e554-4990-a34b-bcd2e51b81cf
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-3867-3003/work/94669200
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85106643247
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000685650700013
dc.descriptionThis work was supported by a European Research Council (ERC) starting grant awarded to A.M.S. (INQMINDS, no. SEP-210159400).en
dc.description.abstractWe developed a non-verbal task assessing updating and manipulation of working memory contents. 80 3- to 7-year-olds (47 girls; predominantly European White) were tested with a 4 × 4 grid containing 8 boxes (in the 4 centre cells and 4 outer corners). A sticker was hidden and children searched for it after a delay phase. In the updating trials, the grid was rotated during delays, in the manipulation trials, the grid was both occluded and rotated. Rewards were hidden in either the inner or outer boxes (between-subjects design). Performance was affected by age, rotation degree and hiding condition. Performance was better in outer boxes trials, where visual tracking was easier. Occluded inner trials added a substantial cognitive load (which increased with degree of rotation), resulting in children performing at chance level, suggesting that manipulation involving mental rotation is a distinct skill from tracking invisible object displacement, with a more protracted development.
dc.relation.ispartofCognitive Developmenten
dc.rightsCopyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.en
dc.subjectWorking memoryen
dc.subjectMental manipulationen
dc.subjectMental rotationen
dc.subjectExecutive functionsen
dc.subjectRC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatryen
dc.titleThinking inside the box : mental manipulation of working memory contents in 3- to 7-year-old childrenen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.sponsorEuropean Research Councilen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. ‘Living Links to Human Evolution’ Research Centreen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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