Six transiting planets and a chain of Laplace resonances in TOI-178
MetadataShow full item record
Altmetrics Handle Statistics
Altmetrics DOI Statistics
Determining the architecture of multi-planetary systems is one of the cornerstones of understanding planet formation and evolution. Resonant systems are especially important as the fragility of their orbital configuration ensures that no significant scattering or collisional event has taken place since the earliest formation phase when the parent protoplanetary disc was still present. In this context, TOI-178 has been the subject of particular attention since the first TESS observations hinted at the possible presence of a near 2:3:3 resonant chain. Here we report the results of observations from CHEOPS, ESPRESSO, NGTS, and SPECULOOS with the aim of deciphering the peculiar orbital architecture of the system. We show that TOI-178 harbours at least six planets in the super-Earth to mini-Neptune regimes, with radii ranging from 1.152-0.070+0.073to 2.87-0.13+0.14Earth radii and periods of 1.91, 3.24, 6.56, 9.96, 15.23, and 20.71 days. All planets but the innermost one form a 2:4:6:9:12 chain of Laplace resonances, and the planetary densities show important variations from planet to planet, jumping from 1.02-0.23+0.28to 0.177-0.061+0.055times the Earth's density between planets c and d. Using Bayesian interior structure retrieval models, we show that the amount of gas in the planets does not vary in a monotonous way, contrary to what one would expect from simple formation and evolution models and unlike other known systems in a chain of Laplace resonances. The brightness of TOI-178 (H = 8.76 mag, J = 9.37 mag, V = 11.95 mag) allows for a precise characterisation of its orbital architecture as well as of the physical nature of the six presently known transiting planets it harbours. The peculiar orbital configuration and the diversity in average density among the planets in the system will enable the study of interior planetary structures and atmospheric evolution, providing important clues on the formation of super-Earths and mini-Neptunes.
Leleu , A , Alibert , Y , Hara , N C , Hooton , M J , Wilson , T G , Robutel , P , Delisle , J-B , Laskar , J , Hoyer , S , Lovis , C , Bryant , E M , Ducrot , E , Cabrera , J , Delrez , L , Acton , J S , Adibekyan , V , Allart , R , Allende Prieto , C , Alonso , R , Alves , D , Anderson , D R , Angerhausen , D , Anglada Escudé , G , Asquier , J , Barrado , D , Barros , S C C , Baumjohann , W , Bayliss , D , Beck , M , Beck , T , Bekkelien , A , Benz , W , Billot , N , Bonfanti , A , Bonfils , X , Bouchy , F , Bourrier , V , Boué , G , Brandeker , A , Broeg , C , Buder , M , Burdanov , A , Burleigh , M R , Bárczy , T , Cameron , A C , Chamberlain , S , Charnoz , S , Cooke , B F , Corral Van Damme , C , Correia , A C M , Cristiani , S , Damasso , M , Davies , M B , Deleuil , M , Demangeon , O D S , Demory , B-O , Di Marcantonio , P , Di Persio , G , Dumusque , X , Ehrenreich , D , Erikson , A , Figueira , P , Fortier , A , Fossati , L , Fridlund , M , Futyan , D , Gandolfi , D , García Muñoz , A , Garcia , L J , Gill , S , Gillen , E , Gillon , M , Goad , M R , González Hernández , J I , Guedel , M , Günther , M N , Haldemann , J , Henderson , B , Heng , K , Hogan , A E , Isaak , K , Jehin , E , Jenkins , J S , Jordán , A , Kiss , L , Kristiansen , M H , Lam , K , Lavie , B , Lecavelier des Etangs , A , Lendl , M , Lillo-Box , J , Lo Curto , G , Magrin , D , Martins , C J A P , Maxted , P F L , McCormac , J , Mehner , A , Micela , G , Molaro , P , Moyano , M , Murray , C A , Nascimbeni , V , Nunes , N J , Olofsson , G , Osborn , H P , Oshagh , M , Ottensamer , R , Pagano , I , Pallé , E , Pedersen , P P , Pepe , F A , Persson , C M , Peter , G , Piotto , G , Polenta , G , Pollacco , D , Poretti , E , Pozuelos , F J , Queloz , D , Ragazzoni , R , Rando , N , Ratti , F , Rauer , H , Raynard , L , Rebolo , R , Reimers , C , Ribas , I , Santos , N C , Scandariato , G , Schneider , J , Sebastian , D , Sestovic , M , Simon , A E , Smith , A M S , Sousa , S G , Sozzetti , A , Steller , M , Suárez Mascareño , A , Szabó , G M , Ségransan , D , Thomas , N , Thompson , S , Tilbrook , R H , Triaud , A , Turner , O , Udry , S , Van Grootel , V , Venus , H , Verrecchia , F , Vines , J I , Walton , N A , West , R G , Wheatley , P J , Wolter , D & Zapatero Osorio , M R 2021 , ' Six transiting planets and a chain of Laplace resonances in TOI-178 ' , Astronomy and Astrophysics , vol. 649 , A26 . https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202039767
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Copyright © A. Leleu et al. 2021. Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
DescriptionThe authors acknowledge support from the Swiss NCCR PlanetS and the Swiss National Science Foundation. Y.A. and M.J.H. acknowledge the support of the Swiss National Fund under grant 200020_172746. A.C.C. and T.W. acknowledge support from STFC consolidated grant number ST/M001296/1. This work was granted access to the HPC resources of MesoPSL financed by the Region Ile de France and the project Equip@Meso (reference ANR-10-EQPX-29-01) of the programme Investissements d’Avenir supervised by the Agence Nationale pour la Recherche. SH acknowledges CNES funding through the grant 837319. Based on data collected under the NGTS project at the ESO La Silla Paranal Observatory. The NGTS facility is operated by the consortium institutes with support from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) project ST/M001962/1. The Belgian participation to CHEOPS has been supported by the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO) in the framework of the PRODEX Program, and by the University of Liège through an ARC grant for Concerted Research Actions financed by the Wallonia-Brussels Federation. V.A. acknowledges the support from FCT through Investigador FCT contract nr. IF/00650/2015/CP1273/CT0001. We acknowledge support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and the European Regional Development Fund through grants ESP2016-80435-C2-1-R, ESP2016-80435-C2-2-R, PGC2018-098153-B-C33, PGC2018-098153-B-C31, ESP2017-87676-C5-1-R, MDM-2017-0737 Unidad de Excelencia “María de Maeztu”-Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), as well as the support of the Generalitat de Catalunya/CERCA programme. The MOC activities have been supported by the ESA contract No. 4000124370. S.C.C.B. acknowledges support from FCT through FCT contracts nr. IF/01312/2014/CP1215/CT0004. X.B., S.C., D.G., M.F. and J.L. acknowledge their role as ESA-appointed CHEOPS science team members. ABr was supported by the SNSA. A.C. acknowledges support by CFisUC projects (UIDB/04564/2020 and UIDP/04564/2020), GRAVITY (PTDC/FIS-AST/7002/2020), ENGAGE SKA (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-022217), and PHOBOS (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-029932), funded by COMPETE 2020 and FCT, Portugal. This work was supported by FCT -Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia through national funds and by FEDER through COMPETE2020 - Programa Operacional Competitividade e Internacionalização by these grants: UID/FIS/04434/2019; UIDB/04434/2020; UIDP/04434/2020; PTDC/FIS-AST/32113/2017 and POCI-01-0145-FEDER-032113; PTDC/FIS-AST/28953/2017 and POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028953; PTDC/FIS-AST/28987/2017 and POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028987. O.D.S.D. is supported in the form of work contract (DL 57/2016/CP1364/CT0004) funded by national funds through FCT. B.-O.D. acknowledges support from the Swiss National Science Foundation (PP00P2-190080). M.F. and C.M.P. gratefully acknowledge the support of the Swedish National Space Agency (DNR 65/19, 174/18). D.G. gratefully acknowledges financial support from the CRT foundation under Grant No. 2018.2323 “Gaseousor rocky? Unveiling the nature of small worlds”. E.G. gratefully acknowledges support from the David and Claudia Harding Foundation in the form of a Winton Exoplanet Fellowship. M.G. is an F.R.S.-FNRS Senior Research Associate. J.I.G.H. acknowledges financial support from Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN) under the 2013 Ramón y Cajal programme RYC-2013-14875. J.I.G.H., A.S.M., R.R., and C.A.P. acknowledge financial support from the Spanish MICINN AYA2017-86389-P. A.S.M. acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN) under the 2019 Juan de la Cierva Programme. MNG ackowledges support from the MIT Kavli Institute as a Juan Carlos Torres Fellow. J.H. acknowledges the support of the Swiss National Fund under grant 200020_172746. KGI is the ESA CHEOPS Project Scientist and is responsible for the ESA CHEOPS Guest Observers Programme. She does not participate in, or contribute to, the definition of the Guaranteed Time Programme of the CHEOPS mission through which observations described in this paper have been taken, nor to any aspect of target selection for the programme. J.S.J. acknowledges support by FONDECYT grant 1201371, and partial support from CONICYT project Basal AFB-170002. A.J. acknowledges support from ANID - Millennium Science Initiative - ICN12_009 and from FONDECYT project 1171208. P.M. acknowledges support from STFC research grant number ST/M001040/1. N.J.N is supported by the contract and exploratory project IF/00852/2015, and projects UID/FIS/04434/2019, PTDC/FIS-OUT/29048/2017, COMPETE2020: POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028987 & FCT: PTDC/FIS-AST/28987/2017. N.J.N is supported by the contract and exploratory project IF/00852/2015, and project PTDC/FIS-OUT/29048/2017. This work was also partially supported by a grant from the Simons Foundation (PI Queloz, grant number 327127). Acknowledges support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and the European Regional Development Fund through grant PGC2018-098153-BC33, as well as the support of the Generalitat de Catalunya/CERCA programme. S.G.S. acknowledges support from FCT through FCT contract nr. CEECIND/00826/2018 and POPH/FSE (EC). This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (https://www.cosmos.esa.int/gaia), processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, https://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/gaia/dpac/consortium). Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. This project has been supported by the Hungarian National Research, Development and Innovation Office (NKFIH) grants GINOP-2.3.2-15-2016-00003, K-119517, K-125015, and the City of Szombathely under Agreement No. 67.177-21/2016. This research received funding from the MERAC foundation, from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement no 803193/ BEBOP, and from the Science and Technology Facilites Council (STFC, grant no ST/S00193X/1). V.V.G. is an F.R.S-FNRS Research Associate. J.I.V. acknowledges support of CONICYT-PFCHA/Doctorado Nacional-21191829. M. R. Z. O. acknowledges financial support from projects AYA2016-79425-C3-2-P and PID2019-109522GB-C51 from the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities.
Items in the St Andrews Research Repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.