CHEOPS observations of the HD 108236 planetary system : A fifth planet, improved ephemerides, and planetary radii
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Context. The detection of a super-Earth and three mini-Neptunes transiting the bright (V = 9.2 mag) star HD 108236 (also known as TOI-1233) was recently reported on the basis of TESS and ground-based light curves. Aims. We perform a first characterisation of the HD 108236 planetary system through high-precision CHEOPS photometry and improve the transit ephemerides and system parameters. Methods. We characterise the host star through spectroscopic analysis and derive the radius with the infrared flux method. We constrain the stellar mass and age by combining the results obtained from two sets of stellar evolutionary tracks. We analyse the available TESS light curves and one CHEOPS transit light curve for each known planet in the system. Results. We find that HD 108236 is a Sun-like star with R⋆ = 0.877 ± 0.008 R⊙, M⋆ = 0.869−0.048+0.050 M⊙, and an age of 6.7−5.1+4.0 Gyr. We report the serendipitous detection of an additional planet, HD 108236 f, in one of the CHEOPS light curves. For this planet, the combined analysis of the TESS and CHEOPS light curves leads to a tentative orbital period of about 29.5 days. From the light curve analysis, we obtain radii of 1.615 ± 0.051, 2.071 ± 0.052, 2.539−0.065+0.062, 3.083 ± 0.052, and 2.017−0.057+0.052 R⊕ for planets HD 108236 b to HD 108236 f, respectively. These values are in agreement with previous TESS-based estimates, but with an improved precision of about a factor of two. We perform a stability analysis of the system, concluding that the planetary orbits most likely have eccentricities smaller than 0.1. We also employ a planetary atmospheric evolution framework to constrain the masses of the five planets, concluding that HD 108236 b and HD 108236 c should have an Earth-like density, while the outer planets should host a low mean molecular weight envelope. Conclusions. The detection of the fifth planet makes HD 108236 the third system brighter than V = 10 mag to host more than four transiting planets. The longer time span enables us to significantly improve the orbital ephemerides such that the uncertainty on the transit times will be of the order of minutes for the years to come. A comparison of the results obtained from the TESS and CHEOPS light curves indicates that for a V ~ 9 mag solar-like star and a transit signal of ~500 ppm, one CHEOPS transit light curve ensures the same level of photometric precision as eight TESS transits combined, although this conclusion depends on the length and position of the gaps in the light curve.
Bonfanti , A , Delrez , L , Hooton , M J , Wilson , T G , Fossati , L , Alibert , Y , Hoyer , S , Mustill , A J , Osborn , H P , Adibekyan , V , Gandolfi , D , Salmon , S , Sousa , S G , Tuson , A , Van Grootel , V , Cabrera , J , Nascimbeni , V , Maxted , P F L , Barros , S C C , Billot , N , Bonfils , X , Borsato , L , Broeg , C , Davies , M B , Deleuil , M , Demangeon , O D S , Fridlund , M , Lacedelli , G , Lendl , M , Persson , C , Santos , N C , Scandariato , G , Szabó , G M , Collier Cameron , A , Udry , S , Benz , W , Beck , M , Ehrenreich , D , Fortier , A , Isaak , K G , Queloz , D , Alonso , R , Asquier , J , Bandy , T , Bárczy , T , Barrado , D , Barragán , O , Baumjohann , W , Beck , T , Bekkelien , A , Bergomi , M , Brandeker , A , Busch , M-D , Cessa , V , Charnoz , S , Chazelas , B , Corral Van Damme , C , Demory , B-O , Erikson , A , Farinato , J , Futyan , D , Garcia Muñoz , A , Gillon , M , Guedel , M , Guterman , P , Hasiba , J , Heng , K , Hernandez , E , Kiss , L , Kuntzer , T , Laskar , J , Lecavelier des Etangs , A , Lovis , C , Magrin , D , Malvasio , L , Marafatto , L , Michaelis , H , Munari , M , Olofsson , G , Ottacher , H , Ottensamer , R , Pagano , I , Pallé , E , Peter , G , Piazza , D , Piotto , G , Pollacco , D , Ragazzoni , R , Rando , N , Ratti , F , Rauer , H , Ribas , I , Rieder , M , Rohlfs , R , Safa , F , Salatti , M , Ségransan , D , Simon , A E , Smith , A M S , Sordet , M , Steller , M , Thomas , N , Tschentscher , M , Van Eylen , V , Viotto , V , Walter , I , Walton , N A , Wildi , F & Wolter , D 2021 , ' CHEOPS observations of the HD 108236 planetary system : A fifth planet, improved ephemerides, and planetary radii ' , Astronomy and Astrophysics , vol. 646 , A157 . https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202039608
Astronomy and Astrophysics
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DescriptionFunding: National Science Foundation. Based on observations made with the ESO 3.6 m telescope at the La Silla Observatory under program ID 1102.C-0923. M.Le acknowledges support from the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG) under project 859 724 “GRAPPA”. A.D. and D.E. acknowledge support from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (project Four Aces; grant agreement No 724427). M.J.H. acknowledges the support of the Swiss National Fund under grant 200020172746. B.-O.D. acknowledges support from the Swiss National Science Foundation (PP00P2-190080). The Spanish scientific participation in CHEOPS has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and the European Regional Development Fund through grants ESP2016-80435-C2-1-R, ESP2016-80435-C2-2-R, ESP2017-87676-C5-1-R, PGC2018-098153-B-C31, PGC2018-098153-B-C33, and MDM-2017-0737 Unidad de Excelencia María de Maeztu-Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), as well as by the Generalitat de Catalunya/CERCA programme. The MOC activities have been supported by the ESA contract No. 4000124370. This work was supported by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) through national funds and by Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional (FEDER) via COMPETE2020 - Programa Operacional Competitividade e Internacional-ização through the research grants: UID/FIS/04434/2019; UIDB/04434/2020; UIDP/04434/2020; PTDC/FIS-AST/32113/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-032113; PTDC/FIS-AST/28953/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028953; PTDC/FIS-AST/28987/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028987. S.C.C.B. and S.G.S. acknowledge support from FCT through FCT contracts nr. IF/01312/2014/CP1215/CT0004, IF/00028/2014/CP1215/CT0002. O.D.S.D. is supported in the form of work contract (DL 57/2016/CP1364/CT0004) funded by national funds through Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT). The Belgian participation to CHEOPS has been supported by the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO) in the framework of the PRODEX Program, and by the University of Liège through an ARC grant for Concerted Research Actions financed by the Wallonia-Brussels Federation. M.G. is F.R.S.-FNRS Senior Research Associate. S.Sa has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No 833925, project STAREX). G.M.S. acknowledges funding from the Hungarian National Research, Development and Innovation Office (NKFIH) grant GINOP-2.3.2-15-2016-00003 and K-119517. For Italy, CHEOPS actvities have been supported by the Italian Space Agency, under the programs: ASI-INAF n. 2013-016-R.0 and ASI-INAF n. 2019-29-HH.0. L.B., G.P., I.P., G.S., and V.N. acknowledge the funding support from Italian Space Agency (ASI) regulated by “Accordo ASI-INAF n. 2013-016-R.0 del 9 luglio 2013 e integrazione del 9 luglio 2015”. G.La acknowledges support by CARIPARO Foundation, according to the agreement CARIPARO-Università degli Studi di Padova (Pratica n. 2018/0098). A.Mu acknowledges support from the Swedish National Space Agency (grant 120/19 C). The dynamical simulations were enabled by resources provided by the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC) at Lunarc partially funded by the Swedish Research Council through grant agreement no. 2016-07213. Funding text 2: Acknowledgements. We are extremely grateful to the anonymous referee for the very thorough comments, which definitely improved the quality of this manuscript. CHEOPS is an ESA mission in partnership with Switzerland with important contributions to the payload and the ground segment from Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The Swiss participation to CHEOPS has been supported by the Swiss Space Office (SSO) in the framework of the Prodex Programme and the Activités Nationales Complémentaires (ANC), the Universities of Bern and Geneva as well as well as of the NCCR PlanetS and the Swiss
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