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dc.contributor.authorHumphreys, Rosalind K.
dc.contributor.authorRuxton, Graeme D.
dc.contributor.authorKarley, Alison J.
dc.identifier.citationHumphreys , R K , Ruxton , G D & Karley , A J 2021 , ' Drop when the stakes are high : adaptive, flexible use of dropping behaviour by aphids ' , Behaviour , vol. Advance Articles , pp. 1-21 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 273732576
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 3af85722-39a2-4fb7-9a8b-b7475192d499
dc.identifier.otherJisc: e6c1ecfd415f4ae798cb662746194705
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-8943-6609/work/92020007
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-7266-7523/work/92020242
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000657260100003
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85107890806
dc.descriptionRKH was funded by the Perry Foundation and the University of St Andrews. AJK is supported by the strategic research programme funded by the Scottish Government’s Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division.en
dc.description.abstractFor herbivorous insects, dropping from the host plant is a commonly-observed antipredator defence. The use of dropping compared to other behaviours and its timing in relation to contact with a predator was explored in both pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) and potato aphids (Macrosiphum euphorbiae). Pea aphids dropped more frequently in response to ladybird adults (Adalia bipunctata) than lacewing larvae (Chrysoperla carnea). Potato aphids mainly walked away or backed-up in response to both predator types; but they dropped more frequently relative to other non-walking defences when faced with ladybird adults. Contact with a predator was an important influencer of dropping for both species, and most drops occurred from adjacent to the predator. Dropping appears to be a defence adaptively deployed only when the risk of imminent predation is high; factors that increase dropping likelihood include presence of faster-foraging predators such as adult ladybirds, predator proximity, and contact between aphid and predator.
dc.rightsCopyright © The authors, 2021. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 licenseen
dc.subjectDropping behaviouren
dc.subjectPredator-prey behaviouren
dc.subjectPredator-prey interactionen
dc.subjectRisk assessmenten
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.titleDrop when the stakes are high : adaptive, flexible use of dropping behaviour by aphidsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Biological Diversityen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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