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dc.contributor.authorBrain, C. K. 'Bob'
dc.contributor.authorPrave, Anthony R.
dc.contributor.authorHoffmann, Karl-Heinz
dc.contributor.authorFallick, Anthony E.
dc.contributor.authorBotha, Andre
dc.contributor.authorHerd, Donald A.
dc.contributor.authorSturrock, Craig
dc.contributor.authorYoung, Iain
dc.contributor.authorCondon, Daniel J.
dc.contributor.authorAllison, Stuart G.
dc.date.accessioned2012-02-13T15:31:04Z
dc.date.available2012-02-13T15:31:04Z
dc.date.issued2012-01
dc.identifier.citationBrain , C K B , Prave , A R , Hoffmann , K-H , Fallick , A E , Botha , A , Herd , D A , Sturrock , C , Young , I , Condon , D J & Allison , S G 2012 , ' The first animals : ca. 760-million-year-old sponge-like fossils from Namibia ' , South African Journal of Science , vol. 108 , no. 1/2 , 658 . https://doi.org/10.4102/sajs.v108i1/2.658en
dc.identifier.issn0038-2353
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 16906688
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 0b5a48df-03f0-45fa-9c82-db74973b5296
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000303551500015
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84856039444
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-4614-3774/work/64033672
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10023/2295
dc.description.abstractOne of the most profound events in biospheric evolution was the emergence of animals, which is thought to have occurred some 600-650 Ma. Here we report on the discovery of phosphatised body fossils that we interpret as ancient sponge-like fossils and term them Otavia antiqua gen. et sp. nov. The fossils are found in Namibia in rocks that range in age between about 760 Ma and 550 Ma. This age places the advent of animals some 100 to 150 million years earlier than proposed, and prior to the extreme climatic changes and postulated stepwise increases in oxygen levels of Ediacaran time. These findings support the predictions based on genetic sequencing and inferences drawn from biomarkers that the first animals were sponges. Further, the deposition and burial of Otavia as sedimentary particles may have driven the large positive C-isotopic excursions and increases in oxygen levels that have been inferred for Neoproterozoic time.
dc.format.extent8
dc.language.isoeng
dc.relation.ispartofSouth African Journal of Scienceen
dc.rights© 2012. The Authors. Licensee: AOSIS OpenJournals. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License.en
dc.subjectQE Geologyen
dc.subject.lccQEen
dc.titleThe first animals : ca. 760-million-year-old sponge-like fossils from Namibiaen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Earth and Environmental Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.St Andrews Sustainability Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Geography and Geosciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.St Andrews Isotope Geochemistryen
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.4102/sajs.v108i1/2.658
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden


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