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dc.contributor.authorElgar, Frank J
dc.contributor.authorDonnelly, Peter D
dc.contributor.authorMichaelson, Valerie
dc.contributor.authorGariépy, Geneviève
dc.contributor.authorRiehm, Kira E
dc.contributor.authorWalsh, Sophie D
dc.contributor.authorPickett, William
dc.identifier.citationElgar , F J , Donnelly , P D , Michaelson , V , Gariépy , G , Riehm , K E , Walsh , S D & Pickett , W 2018 , ' Corporal punishment bans and physical fighting in adolescents : an ecological study of 88 countries ' , BMJ Open , vol. 8 , no. 9 , e021616 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 273496717
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 819764df-1c86-49fe-ab48-83647a0191fe
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 30327378
dc.identifier.otherPubMedCentral: PMC6194465
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85055073006
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000450417800052
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 30327378
dc.descriptionFunding: This work was supported by grants from the Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR; grant numbers MOP133519, MOP341188), Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (grant number 435-2014-2160) and Canada Research Chairs programme.en
dc.description.abstractObjective: To examine the association between corporal punishment bans and youth violence at an international level. Design: Ecological study of low-income to high-income 88 countries. Setting: School-based health surveys of students. Participants: 403 604 adolescents. Interventions: National corporal punishment bans. Primary outcome measure: Age-standardised prevalence of frequent physical fighting (ie, 4+ episodes in the previous year) for male and female adolescents in each country. Results: Frequent fighting was more common in males (9.9%, 95% CI 9.1% to 10.7%) than females (2.8%, 95% CI 2.5% to 3.1%) and varied widely between countries, from 0.9% (95% CI 0.8% to 0.9%) in Costa Rican females to 34.8% (95% CI 34.7 to 35.0) in Samoan males. Compared with 20 countries with no ban, the group of 30 countries with full bans (in schools and in the home) experienced 69% the rate of fighting in males and 42% in females. Thirty-eight countries with partial bans (in schools but not in the home) experienced less fighting in females only (56% the rate found in countries without bans). Conclusions: Country prohibition of corporal punishment is associated with less youth violence. Whether bans precipitated changes in child discipline or reflected a social milieu that inhibits youth violence remains unclear due to the study design and data limitations. However, these results support the hypothesis that societies that prohibit the use of corporal punishment are less violent for youth to grow up in than societies that have not.
dc.relation.ispartofBMJ Openen
dc.rightsCopyright © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2018. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ. This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See:
dc.subjectAdolescent Behavioren
dc.subjectGlobal healthen
dc.subjectHealth surveysen
dc.subjectMiddle Easten
dc.subjectSchools/legislation & jurisprudenceen
dc.subjectViolence/legislation & jurisprudenceen
dc.subjectHV Social pathology. Social and public welfareen
dc.subjectRA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicineen
dc.subjectRJ Pediatricsen
dc.subjectSDG 3 - Good Health and Well-beingen
dc.subjectSDG 16 - Peace, Justice and Strong Institutionsen
dc.titleCorporal punishment bans and physical fighting in adolescents : an ecological study of 88 countriesen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Medicineen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. WHO Collaborating Centre for International Child & Adolescent Health Policyen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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