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dc.contributor.authorPreedy, Katharine
dc.contributor.authorChaplain, Mark A. J.
dc.contributor.authorLeybourne, Daniel
dc.contributor.authorMarion, Glenn
dc.contributor.authorKarley, Alison
dc.identifier.citationPreedy , K , Chaplain , M A J , Leybourne , D , Marion , G & Karley , A 2020 , ' Learning-induced switching costs in a parasitoid can maintain diversity of host aphid phenotypes although biocontrol is destabilized under abiotic stress ' , Journal of Animal Ecology , vol. Early View .
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-5727-2160/work/71559968
dc.descriptionFunding: Scottish Government through the Strategic Research Programme of the Scottish Government’s Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division (RESAS). James Hutton Institute and the Universities of Aberdeen and Dundee through a Scottish Food Security Alliance (Crops) PhD studentship. (D.J.).en
dc.description.abstract1. Aphid populations frequently include phenotypes that are resistant to parasitism by hymenopterous parasitoid wasps, which is often attributed to the presence of ‘protective’ facultative endosymbionts residing in aphid tissues, particularly Hamiltonella defensa. In field conditions, under parasitoid pressure, the observed coexistence of aphids with and without protective symbionts cannot be explained by their difference in fitness alone. 2. Using the cereal aphid Rhopalosiphum padi as a model, we propose an alternative mechanism whereby parasitoids are more efficient at finding common phenotypes of aphid and experience a fitness cost when switching to the less common phenotype. 3. We construct a model based on delay differential equations and parameterise and validate the model with values within the ranges obtained from experimental studies. We then use it to explore possible effects on system dynamics under conditions of environmental stress, using our existing data on the effects of drought stress in crops as an example. 4. We show the ‘switching penalty’ incurred by parasitoids leads to stable coexistence of aphids with and without H. defensa and provides a potential mechanism for maintaining phenotypic diversity amongst host organisms. We show that drought‐induced reduction in aphid development time has little impact. However, greater reduction in fecundity on droughted plants of symbiont‐protected aphids can cause insect population cycles when the system would be stable in the absence of drought stress. 5. The stabilizing effect of the increased efficiency in dealing with more commonly encountered host phenotypes is applicable to a broad range of consumer‐resource systems and could explain stable coexistence in competitive environments. The loss of stable coexistence when drought has different effects on the competing aphid phenotypes highlights the importance of scenario testing when considering biocontrol for pest management.
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Animal Ecologyen
dc.subjectClimate changeen
dc.subjectHamiltonella defensaen
dc.subjectMathematical modelen
dc.subjectQA Mathematicsen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectS Agriculture (General)en
dc.subjectSDG 13 - Climate Actionen
dc.titleLearning-induced switching costs in a parasitoid can maintain diversity of host aphid phenotypes although biocontrol is destabilized under abiotic stressen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Mathematics and Statisticsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Applied Mathematicsen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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