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dc.contributor.authorCarmody, Pádraig
dc.contributor.authorTaylor, Ian
dc.contributor.authorZajontz, Tim
dc.identifier.citationCarmody , P , Taylor , I & Zajontz , T 2021 , ' China’s spatial fix and ‘debt diplomacy’ in Africa : constraining belt or road to economic transformation? ' , Canadian Journal of African Studies , vol. Latest Articles , pp. 1-21 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 273278556
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 24194202-e78a-4811-870c-465fb7eae407
dc.identifier.otherJisc: efd82dde988e4a3b968aa798939d262b
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85100710071
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000616185600001
dc.descriptionTim Zajontz’s research for this article was conducted under a European Research Council (ERC) Advanced Grant for the project African Governance and Space: Transport Corridors, Border Towns and Port Cities in Transition (AFRIGOS) [ADG-2014-67085en
dc.description.abstractMounting overaccumulation of capital and material has compelled the Chinese government to seek solutions overseas. The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), with its transregional infrastructure projects connecting Eurasia and Africa, is the hallmark venture in this effort. Chinese road, railway, port and energy projects, implemented under the BRI banner, have become widespread in Africa. This article traces drivers of the BRI in the post-reform evolution of the Chinese economy and conceptualises the BRI as a multi-vector “spatial fix” aimed at addressing chronic overaccumulation. Focusing on Kenya, Djibouti and Ethiopia, the paper documents how loan financing related to BRI projects reveals contradictions that arise from China’s spatial fix in Africa. Concerns about a looming debt crisis on the continent and the questionable economic sustainability of some BRI projects have become more pressing amidst the COVID-19-induced economic contraction. Hopes for Africa’s economic transformation based on increasing connectivity under the BRI are unlikely to materialise.
dc.relation.ispartofCanadian Journal of African Studiesen
dc.rights© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.en
dc.subjectCultural studiesen
dc.subjectSociology and political scienceen
dc.subjectDT Africaen
dc.subjectHB Economic Theoryen
dc.subjectJZ International relationsen
dc.subjectSDG 10 - Reduced Inequalitiesen
dc.titleChina’s spatial fix and ‘debt diplomacy’ in Africa : constraining belt or road to economic transformation?en
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of International Relationsen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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