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dc.contributor.authorKuepper-Tetzel, Carolina E.
dc.contributor.authorGardner, Paul L.
dc.identifier.citationKuepper-Tetzel , C E & Gardner , P L 2021 , ' Effects of temporary mark withholding on academic performance ' , Psychology Learning & Teaching , vol. Online First .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 273263344
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 9c70e0a2-ef2d-4843-860b-5c17817b5924
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:20D739206C950D39BAF8555D6E93D5AE
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85102646026
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000628960100001
dc.descriptionThe authors would further acknowledge that part of this research was supported by the Proctor's Teaching Development Fund at the University of St Andrews, UK.en
dc.description.abstractAlthough feedback engagement is important for learning, students often do not engage with provided feedback to inform future assignments. One factor for low feedback uptake is the easy access to grades. Thus, systematically delaying the grade release in favor of providing feedback first—temporary mark withholding—may increase students’ engagement with feedback. We tested the hypothesis that temporary mark withholding would have positive effects on (a) future academic performance (Experiments 1 and 2) and (b) feedback engagement (Experiment 2) in authentic psychology university settings. For Experiment 1, 116 Year 2 students were randomly assigned to either a Grade-before-feedback or Feedback-before-grade condition for their report in semester 1 and performance was measured on a similar assessment in semester 2. In Experiment 2, a Year 3 student cohort (t) was provided with feedback on their lab report before marks were released in semester 1 (mark withholding group, N = 97) and compared to the previous Year 3 cohort (t-1) where individual feedback and grades were released simultaneously (historical control group, N = 90). Using this multi-methodological approach, we reveal positive effects of temporary mark withholding on future academic performance and students’ feedback engagement in authentic higher education settings. Practical implications are discussed.
dc.relation.ispartofPsychology Learning & Teachingen
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s) 2021. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License ( which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (
dc.subjectAssessment strategyen
dc.subjectMark withholdingen
dc.subjectUse of feedbacken
dc.subjectBF Psychologyen
dc.titleEffects of temporary mark withholding on academic performanceen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Higher Education Researchen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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