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dc.contributor.authorYuniarto, Laras
dc.contributor.authorGerson, Sarah
dc.contributor.authorSeed, Amanda Madeleine
dc.identifier.citationYuniarto , L , Gerson , S & Seed , A M 2020 , ' Better all by myself : gaining personal experience, not watching others, improves 3-year-olds’ performance in a causal trap task ' , Journal of Experimental Child Psychology , vol. 194 .
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-3867-3003/work/69834797
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-9221-6938/work/118800411
dc.descriptionThis work was supported by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No. 639072).en
dc.description.abstractChildren often learn from others’ demonstrations, but in the causal domain evidence acquired from observing others may be more ambiguous than evidence generated for oneself. Prior work involving tool-using tasks suggests that observational learning might not provide sufficient information about the causal relations involved, but it remains unclear whether these limitations can be mitigated by providing demonstrations using familiar manual actions rather than unfamiliar tools. We provided 2.5- to 3.5-year-old children (N = 67) with the opportunity to acquire experience with a causal trap task by hand or by tool actively or from observing others. Initially, children either generated their own experience or watched a yoked demonstration; all children then attempted the trap task with the tool. Children who generated their own experience outperformed those who watched the demonstration. Hand or tool use had no effect on performance with a tool. The implications of these findings for scaffolding self-guided learning and for demonstrations involving errors are discussed.
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Experimental Child Psychologyen
dc.subjectTool useen
dc.subjectObservational learningen
dc.subjectActive learningen
dc.subjectCausal learningen
dc.subjectBF Psychologyen
dc.titleBetter all by myself : gaining personal experience, not watching others, improves 3-year-olds’ performance in a causal trap tasken
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.sponsorEuropean Research Councilen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. ‘Living Links to Human Evolution’ Research Centreen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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