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dc.contributor.authorYuniarto, Laras
dc.contributor.authorGerson, Sarah
dc.contributor.authorSeed, Amanda Madeleine
dc.identifier.citationYuniarto , L , Gerson , S & Seed , A M 2020 , ' Better all by myself : gaining personal experience, not watching others, improves 3-year-olds’ performance in a causal trap task ' , Journal of Experimental Child Psychology , vol. 194 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 264571048
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 240c89bd-0c1c-4613-85f0-2d505fa40d71
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000528203100003
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-3867-3003/work/69834797
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000528203100003
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85079532100
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-9221-6938/work/118800411
dc.descriptionThis work was supported by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No. 639072).en
dc.description.abstractChildren often learn from others’ demonstrations, but in the causal domain evidence acquired from observing others may be more ambiguous than evidence generated for oneself. Prior work involving tool-using tasks suggests that observational learning might not provide sufficient information about the causal relations involved, but it remains unclear whether these limitations can be mitigated by providing demonstrations using familiar manual actions rather than unfamiliar tools. We provided 2.5- to 3.5-year-old children (N = 67) with the opportunity to acquire experience with a causal trap task by hand or by tool actively or from observing others. Initially, children either generated their own experience or watched a yoked demonstration; all children then attempted the trap task with the tool. Children who generated their own experience outperformed those who watched the demonstration. Hand or tool use had no effect on performance with a tool. The implications of these findings for scaffolding self-guided learning and for demonstrations involving errors are discussed.
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Experimental Child Psychologyen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2019 Published by Elsevier Inc. This work has been made available online in accordance with publisher policies or with permission. Permission for further reuse of this content should be sought from the publisher or the rights holder. This is the author created accepted manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectTool useen
dc.subjectObservational learningen
dc.subjectActive learningen
dc.subjectCausal learningen
dc.subjectBF Psychologyen
dc.titleBetter all by myself : gaining personal experience, not watching others, improves 3-year-olds’ performance in a causal trap tasken
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.sponsorEuropean Research Councilen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. ‘Living Links to Human Evolution’ Research Centreen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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