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dc.contributor.authorDegraer, Steven
dc.contributor.authorCarey, Drew
dc.contributor.authorCoolen, Joop
dc.contributor.authorHutchison, Zoë
dc.contributor.authorKerckhof, Francis
dc.contributor.authorRumes, Bob
dc.contributor.authorVanaverbeke, Jan
dc.identifier.citationDegraer , S , Carey , D , Coolen , J , Hutchison , Z , Kerckhof , F , Rumes , B & Vanaverbeke , J 2020 , ' Offshore wind farm artificial reefs affect ecosystem structure and functioning : a synthesis ' , Oceanography , vol. 33 , no. 4 , pp. 48-57 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 272309922
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: d78a4ef0-c3f2-4daa-a6ac-e43e4fcc1f5a
dc.identifier.othercrossref: 10.5670/oceanog.2020.405
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85099019433
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-1866-7877/work/87404767
dc.descriptionThis paper contributes to the FaCE-It and PERSUADE projects financed by the Belgian Science Policy Office, and the Belgian WinMon.BE offshore wind farm environmental monitoring program. Joop Coolen was funded by NWO Domain Applied and Engineering Sciences under grant 14494.en
dc.description.abstractOffshore wind farms (OWFs) are proliferating globally. The submerged parts of their structures act as artificial reefs, providing new habitats and likely affecting fisheries resources. While acknowledging that the footprints of these structures may result in loss of habitat, usually soft sediment, we focus on how the artificial reefs established by OWFs affect ecosystem structure and functioning. Structurally, the ecological response begins with high diversity and biomass in the flora and fauna that gradually colonize the complex hard substrate habitat. The species may include nonindigenous ones that are extending their spatial distributions and/or strengthening populations, locally rare species (e.g., hard substrate-associated fish), and habitat-forming species that further increase habitat complexity. Functionally, the response begins with dominant suspension feeders that filter organic matter from the water column. Their fecal deposits alter the surrounding seafloor communities by locally increasing food availability, and higher trophic levels (fish, birds, marine mammals) also profit from locally increased food availability and/or shelter. The structural and functional effects extend in space and time, impacting species differently throughout their life cycles. Effects must be assessed at those larger spatiotemporal scales.
dc.rightsCopyright © 2020 the Author(s). This is an open access article made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format as long as users cite the materials appropriately, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate the changes that were made to the original content. Images, animations, videos, or other third-party material used in articles are included in the Creative Commons license unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If the material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission directly from the license holder to reproduce the material.en
dc.subjectGC Oceanographyen
dc.subjectTD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineeringen
dc.subjectSDG 14 - Life Below Wateren
dc.titleOffshore wind farm artificial reefs affect ecosystem structure and functioning : a synthesisen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Biologyen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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