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dc.contributor.authorvan Zijl, Floris V.W.J.
dc.contributor.authorPerrett, David Ian
dc.contributor.authorLohuis, Peter J.F.M.
dc.contributor.authorTouw, Carolina E.
dc.contributor.authorXiao, Dengke
dc.contributor.authorDatema, Frank R.
dc.identifier.citationvan Zijl , F V W J , Perrett , D I , Lohuis , P J F M , Touw , C E , Xiao , D & Datema , F R 2020 , ' The value of averageness in aesthetic rhinoplasty : humans like average noses ' , Aesthetic Surgery Journal , vol. In press , sjaa010 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 266096694
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 42129171-e1fb-46c0-90cc-5153ddc8931d
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-6025-0939/work/68281378
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85096508829
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000595478800013
dc.description.abstractBackground The aesthetic ideal of the nose eludes clear definition. Averageness may be an important determinant of ideal nasal shape: research has shown that averageness plays an important role in the human perception of facial attractiveness. Objectives To test whether an averaged nasal shape is attractive, and whether deviation away from average is associated with decreased attractiveness. Methods Photographical series of the face were obtained from 80 Caucasian female volunteers aged 25-40 years. A mathematically averaged composite image was created using the first 40 volunteers. Forty-one panel members were recruited to judge the attractiveness of the nose of each original image and the composite, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (very ugly) to 5 (very pretty). Deviation of nasal shape from average was calculated using a principal components analysis of standardized nasal landmarks. Results Twenty-one respondents were male (51%). Mean (SD) age of the respondents was 35.3 years (±15.6). The rating of the composite was significantly higher than the distribution of ratings for the 80 original nose images (4.2 vs 2.8, t=31.24, P<.001). The rating of the original nose images correlated negatively with deviation from average shape (r = -.40, n = 80, P<.001). Conclusions In Caucasian females, a mathematically averaged nose is an attractive nose. Furthermore, the more an individual nose shape resembles average shape, the more attractive it is rated. Calculating deviation from average before and after rhinoplasty may aid in objectively measuring aesthetic rhinoplasty outcome.
dc.relation.ispartofAesthetic Surgery Journalen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2020 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. This work has been made available online in accordance with publisher policies or with permission. Permission for further reuse of this content should be sought from the publisher or the rights holder. This is the author created accepted manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectBF Psychologyen
dc.titleThe value of averageness in aesthetic rhinoplasty : humans like average nosesen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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