N-heterocyclic carbene ligands in palladium and iridium organometallic chemistry
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The use of ligand in transition-metal catalysed reactions has had a considerable impact. The present manuscript aims at showing the influence of ligands in the palladium catalysed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. In chapter one, the mechanism of this reaction will be described based on the numerous contribution published in the literature. It will be shown that the electronic and steric properties of the ligands have a huge repercussion on the catalytic activity of the metal. In the second chapter, the electronic and steric properties of the widely used Buchwald-phosphine ligand will be investigated. For this purpose, bis-carbonyl iridium(I) complexes were synthesized and their characterization allowed determining their TEP (Tolman electronic parameter) and their buried volume %V[subscript(bur)]. Then three next chapters of this thesis will focus on the syntheses and characterizations of new palladium complexes bearing N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC). Their design was made in a view to obtain high activity in cross coupling reaction, particularly in the Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling. Their activation under the catalytic conditions leads to the formation of palladium(0) species that can be mono- or bis-ligated. The influence of the ligand on the catalyst activity will be discussed. A palladium(II) precatalyst leading to mono-ligated active species will be described. Its activity in cross-coupling is very good, since activated and non-activated aryl chlorides could be coupled with aryl boronic acids at room temperature using low catalyst loadings. Unfortunately, the catalyst activity decreased with temperature. This result showed the fragility of the mono-ligated active species. In a view to obtain more robust catalysts that can perform high turnover numbers, new palladium(II) precatalysts bearing two ancillary ligands were developed. Mixed systems NHC- phosphites and NHC-phosphines are described. NHC-phosphites precatalysts displayed very good activity, but the phosphites are unfortunately sensitive to reaction conditions, limiting their role of active species shield. NHC-phosphine bearing complexes were highly active and could perform up to 10,000 turnovers with unactivated aryl chlorides. Very interestingly, these catalysts were also able to couple benzylchlorides and allyl chlorides with a wide range of boronic acids at very low catalyst loadings. These reactions had also the great advantage to proceed in aqueous solvents at very high substrate concentration. The activation mechanism of these complexes was investigated. Dichloropalladium(II) complexes were reduced under the catalytic conditions to lead palladium(0) species. Therein, it is shown that this reduction step was rate-determining in catalysis. Some palladium(0) intermediates xxiv were synthesized and showed good to excellent activities at low temperature under the exact same conditions. They displayed high reactivity towards oxygen and moisture and have to be handled under inert atmosphere. A particular complex had the ability to react with molecular dioxygen to form a stable peroxo-complex. Interestingly, this complex displayed excellent activity in water under aerobic conditions. This system was of great advantage since the reaction could be set up under air using cheap and user-friendly reagents displaying low toxicity. Moreover, the readily available distilled water used as solvent did not require prior degassing. Symmetrical and unsymmetrical bis-NHC palladium(0) complexes were successfully synthesized. They display excellent activity in the Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling and turnover frequencies as high as 300 could be obtained at room temperature with unactivated arylchlorides and arylboronic acids. These complexes were also found excellent catalysts for the coupling of benzylchlorides with arylboronic acids. Mechanistic studies showed that no ligand dissociation occurred during the coupling suggesting as bis-ligated active species.
Thesis, PhD Doctor of Philosophy
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