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dc.contributor.authorKeum, Changmin
dc.contributor.authorMurawski, Caroline
dc.contributor.authorArcher, Emily
dc.contributor.authorKwon, Seonil
dc.contributor.authorMischok, Andreas
dc.contributor.authorGather, Malte C.
dc.identifier.citationKeum , C , Murawski , C , Archer , E , Kwon , S , Mischok , A & Gather , M C 2020 , ' A substrateless, flexible, and water-resistant organic light-emitting diode ' , Nature Communications , vol. 11 , 6250 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 271169905
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 11d771d8-8fe4-4fad-a984-b001bbb90221
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-4857-5562/work/85168042
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-4725-7404/work/85168565
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000598906000013
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85097267485
dc.descriptionThis research was financially supported from the Leverhulme Trust (RPG-2017-231), the EPSRC NSF-CBET lead agency agreement (EP/R010595/1, 1706207), the DARPA NESD programme (N66001-17-C-4012) and the RS Macdonald Charitable Trust. C.K. acknowledges support from the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2017R1A6A3A03012331). C.M. acknowledges funding from the European Commission through a Marie Skłodowska Curie individual fellowship (703387). A.M. acknowledges funding through an individual fellowship of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (404587082). M.C.G. acknowledges funding from the Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung (Humboldt-Professorship).en
dc.description.abstractDespite widespread interest, ultrathin and highly flexible light-emitting devices that can be seamlessly integrated and used for flexible displays, wearables, and as bioimplants remain elusive. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with µm-scale thickness and exceptional flexibility have been demonstrated but show insufficient stability in air and moist environments due to a lack of suitable encapsulation barriers. Here, we demonstrate an efficient and stable OLED with a total thickness of ≈ 12 µm that can be fully immersed in water or cell nutrient media for weeks without suffering substantial degradation. The active layers of the device are embedded between conformal barriers formed by alternating layers of parylene-C and metal oxides that are deposited through a low temperature chemical vapour process. These barriers also confer stability of the OLED to repeated bending and to extensive postprocessing, e.g. via reactive gas plasmas, organic solvents, and photolithography. This unprecedented robustness opens up a wide range of novel possibilities for ultrathin OLEDs.
dc.relation.ispartofNature Communicationsen
dc.rightsCopyright © the Author(s) 2020. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
dc.subjectQC Physicsen
dc.subjectTK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineeringen
dc.titleA substrateless, flexible, and water-resistant organic light-emitting diodeen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.sponsorUS Department of Defenceen
dc.contributor.sponsorEuropean Commissionen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Physics and Astronomyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Sir James Mackenzie Institute for Early Diagnosisen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Biophotonicsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Biomedical Sciences Research Complexen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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