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dc.contributor.authorHutchison, Zoë L.
dc.contributor.authorGill, Andrew B.
dc.contributor.authorSigray, Peter
dc.contributor.authorHe, Haibo
dc.contributor.authorKing, John W.
dc.identifier.citationHutchison , Z L , Gill , A B , Sigray , P , He , H & King , J W 2020 , ' Anthropogenic electromagnetic fields (EMF) influence the behaviour of bottom-dwelling marine species ' , Scientific Reports , vol. 10 , 4219 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 271538393
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 82ee0827-7767-4897-be97-55afa0566eb3
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85081289198
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 32144341
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-1866-7877/work/87404774
dc.descriptionFunding: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (contract number M14PC00009), representing an integrated analysis drawn from the work fully reported in OCS Study Report Number BOEM 2018-003.en
dc.description.abstractMany marine animals have evolved sensory abilities to use electric and magnetic cues in essential aspects of life history, such as to detect prey, predators and mates as well as to orientate and migrate. Potential disruption of vital cues by human activities must be understood in order to mitigate potential negative influences. Cable deployments in coastal waters are increasing worldwide, in capacity and number, owing to growing demands for electrical power and telecommunications. Increasingly, the local electromagnetic environment used by electro- and magneto-sensitive species will be altered. We quantified biologically relevant behavioural responses of the presumed, magneto-receptive American lobster and the electro-sensitive Little skate to electromagnetic field (EMF) emissions of a subsea high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission cable for domestic electricity supply. We demonstrate a striking increase in exploratory/foraging behaviour in skates in response to EMF and a more subtle exploratory response in lobsters. In addition, by directly measuring both the magnetic and electric field components of the EMF emitted by HVDC cables we found that there were DC and unexpectedly AC components. Modelling, restricted to the DC component, showed good agreement with measured results. Our cross-disciplinary study highlights the need to integrate an understanding of the natural and anthropogenic EMF environment together with the responses of sensitive animals when planning future cable deployments and predicting their environmental effects.
dc.relation.ispartofScientific Reportsen
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s) 2020. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Cre-ative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not per-mitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
dc.subjectGC Oceanographyen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.titleAnthropogenic electromagnetic fields (EMF) influence the behaviour of bottom-dwelling marine speciesen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Biologyen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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