Undirecting membership in models of Anti-Foundation
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It is known that, if we take a countable model of Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory ZFC and “undirect” the membership relation (that is, make a graph by joining x to y if either x∈y or y∈x), we obtain the Erdős–Rényi random graph. The crucial axiom in the proof of this is the Axiom of Foundation; so it is natural to wonder what happens if we delete this axiom, or replace it by an alternative (such as Aczel’s Anti-Foundation Axiom). The resulting graph may fail to be simple; it may have loops (if x∈x for some x) or multiple edges (if x∈y and y∈x for some distinct x, y). We show that, in ZFA, if we keep the loops and ignore the multiple edges, we obtain the “random loopy graph” (which is ℵ0-categorical and homogeneous), but if we keep multiple edges, the resulting graph is not ℵ0-categorical, but has infinitely many 1-types. Moreover, if we keep only loops and double edges and discard single edges, the resulting graph contains countably many connected components isomorphic to any given finite connected graph with loops.
Adam-Day , B & Cameron , P J 2020 , ' Undirecting membership in models of Anti-Foundation ' , Aequationes Mathematicae , vol. First Online . https://doi.org/10.1007/s00010-020-00763-w
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