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dc.contributor.authorHulme, Philip E.
dc.contributor.authorBaker, Richard
dc.contributor.authorFreckleton, Robert
dc.contributor.authorHails, Rosemary S.
dc.contributor.authorHartley, Matt
dc.contributor.authorHarwood, John
dc.contributor.authorMarion, Glenn
dc.contributor.authorSmith, Graham C.
dc.contributor.authorWilliamson, Mark
dc.identifier.citationHulme , P E , Baker , R , Freckleton , R , Hails , R S , Hartley , M , Harwood , J , Marion , G , Smith , G C & Williamson , M 2020 , ' The Epidemiological Framework for Biological Invasions (EFBI) : an interdisciplinary foundation for the assessment of biosecurity threats ' , NeoBiota , vol. 62 , pp. 161-192 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 270748548
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 5c9fc3c2-935b-4ad4-bdb9-ce1255d54c6a
dc.identifier.othercrossref: 10.3897/neobiota.62.52463
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000582928700008
dc.descriptionThis work resulted from a workshop (Towards an integrated assessment of the environmental risks posed by non-native species, GMOs and wildlife diseases) held as part of the UK Population Biology Network (UKPopNet) and funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (Agreement R8-H12-01) and English Nature. Its development was stimulated by the workshop on ‘Frameworks used in Invasion Science’ hosted by the DSI-NRF Centre of Excellence for Invasion Biology that was supported by the National Research Foundation of South Africa and Stellenbosch University.en
dc.description.abstractEmerging microparasite (e.g. viruses, bacteria, protozoa and fungi) epidemics and the introduction of non-native pests and weeds are major biosecurity threats worldwide. The likelihood of these threats is often estimated from probabilities of their entry, establishment, spread and ease of prevention. If ecosystems are considered equivalent to hosts, then compartment disease models should provide a useful framework for understanding the processes that underpin non-native species invasions. To enable greater cross-fertilisation between these two disciplines, the Epidemiological Framework for Biological Invasions (EFBI) is developed that classifies ecosystems in relation to their invasion status: Susceptible, Exposed, Infectious and Resistant. These states are linked by transitions relating to transmission, latency and recovery. This viewpoint differs markedly from the species-centric approaches often applied to non-native species. It allows generalisations from epidemiology, such as the force of infection, the basic reproductive ratio R0, super-spreaders, herd immunity, cordon sanitaire and ring vaccination, to be discussed in the novel context of non-native species and helps identify important gaps in the study of biological invasions. The EFBI approach highlights several limitations inherent in current approaches to the study of biological invasions including: (i) the variance in non-native abundance across ecosystems is rarely reported; (ii) field data rarely (if ever) distinguish source from sink ecosystems; (iii) estimates of the susceptibility of ecosystems to invasion seldom account for differences in exposure to non-native species; and (iv) assessments of ecosystem susceptibility often confuse the processes that underpin patterns of spread within -and between- ecosystems. Using the invasion of lakes as a model, the EFBI approach is shown to present a new biosecurity perspective that takes account of ecosystem status and complements demographic models to deliver clearer insights into the dynamics of biological invasions at the landscape scale. It will help to identify whether management of the susceptibility of ecosystems, of the number of vectors, or of the diversity of pathways (for movement between ecosystems) is the best way of limiting or reversing the population growth of a non-native species. The framework can be adapted to incorporate increasing levels of complexity and realism and to provide insights into how to monitor, map and manage biological invasions more effectively.
dc.rightsCopyright © 2020 Philip E. Hulme, Richard Baker, Robert Freckleton, Rosemary S. Hails, Matt Hartley, John Harwood, Glenn Marion, Graham C. Smith, Mark Williamson. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.en
dc.subjectClimate changeen
dc.subjectState-andtransition modelsen
dc.subjectQR Microbiologyen
dc.subjectRA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicineen
dc.subjectSDG 3 - Good Health and Well-beingen
dc.subjectSDG 13 - Climate Actionen
dc.titleThe Epidemiological Framework for Biological Invasions (EFBI) : an interdisciplinary foundation for the assessment of biosecurity threatsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. University of St Andrewsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Art Historyen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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