Sodium naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylate : an anode for sodium batteries
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The conjugated dicarboxylate, sodium naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylate (Na2NDC), has been prepared by a low energy consumption reflux method and its performance as a negative electrode for sodium-ion batteries evaluated in electrochemical cells. The structure of Na2NDC was solved for the first time (monoclinic P21/c) from powder X-ray diffraction data and consists of π-stacked naphthalene units separated by sodium-oxygen layers. Through an appropriate choice of binder and conducting carbon additive Na2NDC exhibits a reversible two electron sodium insertion at around 0.4 V vs. Na+/Na with remarkably stable capacities of ca. 200 mA h g-1 at a rate of C/2 and good rate capability (~133 mA h g-1 at 5C). In parallel the high thermal stability of the material is demonstrated by HT-X-ray diffraction, the framework remaining intact to above 500 °C.
Cabañero , J M , Pimenta , V , Cannon , K , Morris , R & Armstrong , A R 2019 , ' Sodium naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylate : an anode for sodium batteries ' , CHEMSUSCHEM , vol. Early View . https://doi.org/10.1002/cssc.201901626
Copyright © 2019 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at https://doi.org/10.1002/cssc.201901626
DescriptionWe thank the EPSRC (EP/K025112/1) and the Leverhulme Trust (RPG-2016-323) for funding and Diamond Light Source for rapid access to synchrotron radiation facilities.
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