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dc.contributor.authorCezard, Genevieve I.
dc.identifier.citationCezard , G I 2020 , ' Evidencing the gap between health expectancy and life expectancy for ethnic groups in Scotland ' , Revue Quetelet/Quetelet Journal , vol. 7 , no. 1 , pp. 135-162 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 269749353
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 3c4746f6-f568-445c-bcaf-641955f5e2f6
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-3011-7416/work/79565034
dc.description.abstractBackground Recent evidence has shown that ethnic minorities live longer than the majority population in Scotland. This mortality advantage in ethnic minorities is not unique to Scotland. However, whether morbidity patterns by ethnicity align with mortality patterns by ethnicity is unknown. Thus, this study explores ethnic differences in health expectancies (HE) in Scotland and contrasts HE with life expectancy (LE) findings. Methods The Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage study anonymously links the Scottish Census 2001 for 4.6 million people to mortality records. The Scottish Census 2001 collected two measures of self-assessed health, self-declared ethnicity, age, and sex. Utilising the life tables used to calculate life expectancy by ethnicity and sex in Scotland, the Sullivan method was employed to calculate two measures of health expectancy (healthy life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy) by ethnicity and sex. 95% confidence intervals were calculated to detect significant differences compared to the majority White Scottish population, taken as reference. Results Longer health expectancies were found in males and females of Other White British, Other White, and Chinese origins as well as in Indian males compared to White Scottish populations. Any Mixed Background and Pakistani populations had the shortest healthy life expectancies. Patterns of health expectancy by ethnicity mostly aligned with patterns of life expectancy by ethnicity with the clear exception of the Pakistani population who showed among the longest life expectancies with the shortest health expectancies. Contrasting HE with LE findings, the number of years in an unhealthy state was greater in females than in males for each ethnic group. In relation to ethnicity, Pakistani and Indian populations had the highest number of years in an unhealthy state in Scotland. Pakistani females showed the strong-est disadvantage in this respect. Conclusion Pakistani populations had the shortest health expectancies contrasting with the longest life expectancies in Scotland. Future research should aim to understand why such a discrepancy occurs while policy makers ensure that fair and adapt-ed care is provided to offer better quality of life for the most vulnerable.
dc.relation.ispartofRevue Quetelet/Quetelet Journalen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2020 Geneviève Cézard. Open Access. This work islicensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Users can share, adapt the material for non-commercial purposes provided that they give appropriate credit and indicate if changes were made. If remixed, transformed, or built upon the material, the contribution must be distributed under the same license as the original. For details see
dc.subjectHealth expectancyen
dc.subjectMorbidity-mortality paradoxen
dc.subjectG Geography (General)en
dc.subjectHM Sociologyen
dc.subjectSDG 3 - Good Health and Well-beingen
dc.titleEvidencing the gap between health expectancy and life expectancy for ethnic groups in Scotlanden
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Population and Health Researchen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Geography & Sustainable Developmenten
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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