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dc.contributor.advisorLightfoot, Philip
dc.contributor.advisorMorrison, Finlay D.
dc.contributor.authorReisinger, Sandra A.
dc.description.abstractThere has been an increase in the interest in fluoride materials over the last decade. This interest has focused on multiferroic materials and kagome lattices, to name but a few areas. This thesis focuses on the synthesis and crystallographic characterisation of selected transition metal fluorides and oxyfluorides. Work is presented on the tetragonal tungsten bronze solid solutions of K[subscript(x)]FeF₃, where x = 0.58 and x ≈ 0.5, and the copper analogue, K₃Cu₃Fe₂F₁₅; the kagome structure of Cs₂ZrCu₃F₁₂; and hydrothermal reactions using vanadium, manganese, or molybdenum as the transition metals in the formation of new fluorides and oxyfluorides. The tetragonal tungsten bronze compounds K[subscript(x)]FeF₃ (x = 0.58 and x ≈ 0.5) are both tetragonal at 500 K. In the variant with the lower K-content, there is a clear phase separation into two tetragonal phases even at this temperature. The K₀.₅₈FeF₃ sample separates into two distinct phases below 340 K to possess one tetragonal and one orthorhombic phase. Then at roughly 300 K, both samples undergo a phase transition where the tetragonal phase in the P4/mbm space group in K₀.₅₈FeF₃ changes to an orthorhombic phase with a larger unit cell; and the tetragonal phase in P4₂bc for the K₀.₅FeF₃ sample changes to the same orthorhombic model, whilst the P4/mbm model remains unchanged. The evolution of the lattice parameters and phase fractions is studied in detail using synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction (sPXRD). The kagome structure investigated, Cs₂ZrCu₃F₁₂, possesses the “ideal” kagome lattice at room temperature, but previous work has suggested that there is a phase transition at 225 K. The two structures are determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction at 300 K and 125 K. Variable temperature sPXRD studies are performed between these two temperature ranges to determine the phase evolution as a function of temperature. The structure changes from a rhombohedral to a monoclinic phase at low temperature. This is the result of the buckling of the kagome layers at the phase transition. The Zr⁴⁺ ion changes from 6 to 7 coordinate and this is seen as the main driving force for the distortion of the kagome layer from its “ideal” planar arrangement. ii The phase transition is first-order as seen from the electrical impedance measurements. The hydrothermal reactions presented reveal seven new materials and their crystal structures. Sr₂V₂F₁₀·H₂O is new and found to be isostructural to Sr₂Fe₂F₁₀·H₂O. BaVO₂F₃ is a cubic material that is potentially piezoelectric. Two hybrid organic inorganic manganese compounds are reported. The ladder structure (C₃N₂H₅)[Mn₂F₆(H₂O)₂] crystallises in a polar space group and shows promise as a candidate for multiferroic studies. The second hybrid material, (C₇NH₁₆)₂[MnF₅(H₂O)]·2H₂O, crystallises in a centrosymmetric space group. The Mo hybrid materials are all centrosymmetric and possess isolated molybdenum-centred monomeric or dimeric octahedral units.en_US
dc.publisherUniversity of St Andrews
dc.subjectTetragonal tungsten bronzeen_US
dc.subjectSolid stateen_US
dc.subject.lcshTransition metal compoundsen_US
dc.titleSynthesis and structure-property relationships in selected metal fluoridesen_US
dc.type.qualificationnamePhD Doctor of Philosophyen_US
dc.publisher.institutionThe University of St Andrewsen_US

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