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dc.contributor.authorYoung, Ben
dc.contributor.authorBedford, Laura
dc.contributor.authordas Nair, Roshan
dc.contributor.authorGallant, Stephanie
dc.contributor.authorLittleford, Roberta
dc.contributor.authorRobertson, John F.R.
dc.contributor.authorSchembri, Stuart
dc.contributor.authorSullivan, Frank M.
dc.contributor.authorVedhara, Kavita
dc.contributor.authorKendrick, Denise
dc.contributor.authorECLS study team
dc.identifier.citationYoung , B , Bedford , L , das Nair , R , Gallant , S , Littleford , R , Robertson , J F R , Schembri , S , Sullivan , F M , Vedhara , K , Kendrick , D & ECLS study team 2019 , ' Unconditional and conditional monetary incentives to increase response to mailed questionnaires : a randomized controlled study within a trial (SWAT) ' , Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice , vol. Early View .
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-6623-4964/work/59953727
dc.descriptionThe SWAT was part of a programme of research funded by Chief Scientist Office, Oncimmune Limited, and University of Nottingham PhD studentships.en
dc.description.abstractRationale, aims, and objectives:  High response rates to research questionnaires can help to ensure results are more representative of the population studied and provide increased statistical power, on which the study may have been predicated. Improving speed and quality of response can reduce costs. Method:  We conducted a randomized study within a trial (SWAT) to assess questionnaire response rates, reminders sent, and data completeness with unconditional compared with conditional monetary incentives. Eligible individuals were mailed a series of psychological questionnaires as a follow‐up to a baseline host trial questionnaire. Half received a £5 gift voucher with questionnaires (unconditional), and half were promised the voucher after returning questionnaires (conditional). Results:  Of 1079 individuals, response rates to the first follow‐up questionnaire were 94.2% and 91.7% in the unconditional and conditional monetary incentive groups, respectively (OR 1.78; 95% CI, 0.85‐3.72). There were significantly greater odds of returning repeat questionnaires in the unconditional group at 6 months (OR 2.97; 95% CI, 1.01‐8.71; .047) but not at 12 months (OR 1.12; 95% CI, 0.44‐2.85). Incentive condition had no impact at any time point on the proportion of sent questionnaires that needed reminders. Odds of incomplete questionnaires were significantly greater at 3 months in the unconditional compared with the conditional incentive group (OR 2.45; 95% CI, 1.32‐4.55; .004). Conclusions:  Unconditional monetary incentives can produce a transitory greater likelihood of mailed questionnaire response in a clinical trial participant group, consistent with the direction of effect in other settings. However, this could have been a chance finding. The use of multiple strategies to promote response may have created a ceiling effect. This strategy has potential to reduce administrative and postage costs, weighed against the cost of incentives used, but could risk compromising the completeness of data.
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Evaluation in Clinical Practiceen
dc.subjectResponse ratesen
dc.subjectRecruitment strategiesen
dc.subjectMonetary incentivesen
dc.subjectClinical trialen
dc.subjectRA Public aspects of medicineen
dc.subjectRM Therapeutics. Pharmacologyen
dc.subjectHealth Policyen
dc.subjectPublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Healthen
dc.subjectSDG 3 - Good Health and Well-beingen
dc.titleUnconditional and conditional monetary incentives to increase response to mailed questionnaires : a randomized controlled study within a trial (SWAT)en
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Sir James Mackenzie Institute for Early Diagnosisen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Population and Behavioural Science Divisionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Medicineen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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