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dc.contributor.authorCloutier, Ryan
dc.contributor.authorRodriguez, Joseph E.
dc.contributor.authorIrwin, Jonathan
dc.contributor.authorCharbonneau, David
dc.contributor.authorStassun, Keivan G.
dc.contributor.authorMortier, Annelies
dc.contributor.authorLatham, David W.
dc.contributor.authorIsaacson, Howard
dc.contributor.authorHoward, Andrew W.
dc.contributor.authorUdry, Stéphane
dc.contributor.authorWilson, Thomas G.
dc.contributor.authorWatson, Christopher A.
dc.contributor.authorPinamonti, Matteo
dc.contributor.authorLienhard, Florian
dc.contributor.authorGiacobbe, Paolo
dc.contributor.authorGuerra, Pere
dc.contributor.authorCollins, Karen A.
dc.contributor.authorBeiryla, Allyson
dc.contributor.authorEsquerdo, Gilbert A.
dc.contributor.authorMatthews, Elisabeth
dc.contributor.authorMatson, Rachel A.
dc.contributor.authorHowell, Steve B.
dc.contributor.authorFurlan, Elise
dc.contributor.authorCrossfield, Ian J. M.
dc.contributor.authorWinters, Jennifer G.
dc.contributor.authorNava, Chantanelle
dc.contributor.authorMent, Kristo
dc.contributor.authorLopez, Eric D.
dc.contributor.authorRicker, George
dc.contributor.authorVanderspek, Roland
dc.contributor.authorSeager, Sara
dc.contributor.authorJenkins, Jon M.
dc.contributor.authorTing, Eric B.
dc.contributor.authorTenenbaum, Peter
dc.contributor.authorSozzetti, Alessandro
dc.contributor.authorSha, Lizhou
dc.contributor.authorSégransan, Damien
dc.contributor.authorSchlieder, Joshua E.
dc.contributor.authorSasselov, Dimitar
dc.contributor.authorRoy, Arpita
dc.contributor.authorRobertson, Paul
dc.contributor.authorRice, Ken
dc.contributor.authorPoretti, Ennio
dc.contributor.authorPiotto, Giampaolo
dc.contributor.authorPhillips, David
dc.contributor.authorPepper, Joshua
dc.contributor.authorPepe, Francesco
dc.contributor.authorMolinari, Emilio
dc.contributor.authorMocnik, Teo
dc.contributor.authorMicela, Giuseppina
dc.contributor.authorMayor, Michel
dc.contributor.authorMartinez Fiorenzano, Aldo F.
dc.contributor.authorMallia, Franco
dc.contributor.authorLubin, Jack
dc.contributor.authorLovis, Christophe
dc.contributor.authorLópez-Morales, Mercedes
dc.contributor.authorKosiarek, Molly R.
dc.contributor.authorKielkopf, John F.
dc.contributor.authorKane, Stephen R.
dc.contributor.authorJensen, Eric L. N.
dc.contributor.authorIsopi, Giovanni
dc.contributor.authorHuber, Daniel
dc.contributor.authorHill, Michelle L.
dc.contributor.authorHarutyunyan, Avet
dc.contributor.authorGonzales, Erica
dc.contributor.authorGiacalone, Steven
dc.contributor.authorGhedina, Adriano
dc.contributor.authorErcolino, Andrea
dc.contributor.authorDumusque, Xavier
dc.contributor.authorDressing, Courtney D.
dc.contributor.authorDamasso, Mario
dc.contributor.authorDalba, Paul A.
dc.contributor.authorCosentino, Rosario
dc.contributor.authorConti, Dennis M.
dc.contributor.authorColón, Knicole D.
dc.contributor.authorCollins, Kevin I.
dc.contributor.authorCameron, Andrew Collier
dc.contributor.authorCiardi, David
dc.contributor.authorChristiansen, Jessie
dc.contributor.authorChontos, Ashley
dc.contributor.authorCecconi, Massimo
dc.contributor.authorCaldwell, Douglas A.
dc.contributor.authorBurke, Christopher
dc.contributor.authorBuchhave, Lars
dc.contributor.authorBeichman, Charles
dc.contributor.authorBehmard, Aida
dc.contributor.authorBeard, Corey
dc.contributor.authorAkana Murphy, Joseph M.
dc.identifier.citationCloutier , R , Rodriguez , J E , Irwin , J , Charbonneau , D , Stassun , K G , Mortier , A , Latham , D W , Isaacson , H , Howard , A W , Udry , S , Wilson , T G , Watson , C A , Pinamonti , M , Lienhard , F , Giacobbe , P , Guerra , P , Collins , K A , Beiryla , A , Esquerdo , G A , Matthews , E , Matson , R A , Howell , S B , Furlan , E , Crossfield , I J M , Winters , J G , Nava , C , Ment , K , Lopez , E D , Ricker , G , Vanderspek , R , Seager , S , Jenkins , J M , Ting , E B , Tenenbaum , P , Sozzetti , A , Sha , L , Ségransan , D , Schlieder , J E , Sasselov , D , Roy , A , Robertson , P , Rice , K , Poretti , E , Piotto , G , Phillips , D , Pepper , J , Pepe , F , Molinari , E , Mocnik , T , Micela , G , Mayor , M , Martinez Fiorenzano , A F , Mallia , F , Lubin , J , Lovis , C , López-Morales , M , Kosiarek , M R , Kielkopf , J F , Kane , S R , Jensen , E L N , Isopi , G , Huber , D , Hill , M L , Harutyunyan , A , Gonzales , E , Giacalone , S , Ghedina , A , Ercolino , A , Dumusque , X , Dressing , C D , Damasso , M , Dalba , P A , Cosentino , R , Conti , D M , Colón , K D , Collins , K I , Cameron , A C , Ciardi , D , Christiansen , J , Chontos , A , Cecconi , M , Caldwell , D A , Burke , C , Buchhave , L , Beichman , C , Behmard , A , Beard , C & Akana Murphy , J M 2020 , ' TOI-1235 b : a keystone super-earth for testing radius valley emergence models around early M dwarfs ' , Astronomical Journal , vol. 160 , no. 1 , 22 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 268622275
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 6132adde-f220-46f2-90ea-fa01d154db30
dc.identifier.otherBibCode: 2020AJ....160...22C
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8863-7828/work/76386624
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000541924400001
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85087784684
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-8749-1962/work/86987361
dc.descriptionFunding: R.C. is supported by a grant from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in support of the TESS science mission. M.P. gratefully acknowledges the support from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement No. 313014 (ETAEARTH). J.M.A.M. gratefully acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under grant No. DGE-1842400. J.M.A.M. also thanks the LSSTC Data Science Fellowship Program, which is funded by LSSTC, NSF Cybertraining grant No. 1829740, the Brinson Foundation, and the Moore Foundation. This work has been partially supported by the National Aeronautics and Administration under grant No.NNX17AB59G issued through the Exoplanets Research Program. The MEarth Team gratefully acknowledges funding from the David and Lucile Packard Fellowship for Science and Engineering (awarded to D.C.). This material is based onwork supported by the National Science Foundation undergrants AST-0807690, AST-1109468, AST-1004488 (Alan T.Waterman Award), and AST-1616624. This work is made possible by a grant from the John Templeton Foundation.en
dc.description.abstractSmall planets on close-in orbits tend to exhibit envelope mass fractions of either effectively zero or up to a few percent depending on their size and orbital period. Models of thermally driven atmospheric mass loss and of terrestrial planet formation in a gas-poor environment make distinct predictions regarding the location of this rocky/nonrocky transition in period-radius space. Here we present the confirmation of TOI-1235 b (P = 3.44 days, rp = 1.738-0.076+0.087 R⊕), a planet whose size and period are intermediatebetween the competing model predictions, thus making the system animportant test case for emergence models of the rocky/nonrockytransition around early M dwarfs (Rs = 0.630 ± 0.015 R⊙, Ms = 0.640 ± 0.016 M⊙). We confirm the TESS planet discovery using reconnaissance spectroscopy, ground-based photometry, high-resolution imaging, and aset of 38 precise radial velocities (RVs) from HARPS-N and HIRES. We measure a planet mass of 6.91-0.85+0.75 M⊕, which implies an iron core mass fraction of 20-12+15% in the absence of a gaseous envelope. The bulk composition of TOI-1235 b is therefore consistent with being Earth-like, and we constrain an H/He envelope mass fraction to be <0.5% at 90% confidence. Our results are consistent with model predictions from thermally driven atmospheric mass loss but not with gas-poor formation, suggesting that the former class of processes remains efficient at sculpting close-in planets around early M dwarfs. Our RV analysis also reveals a strong periodicity close to the first harmonic of the photometrically determined stellar rotation period that we treat as stellar activity, despite other lines of evidence favoring a planetary origin (P = 21.8-0.8+0.8 days, mp sin i = 13.0-5.3+3.8 M⊕) that cannot be firmly ruled out by our data.
dc.relation.ispartofAstronomical Journalen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2020 The American Astronomical Society. This work has been made available online in accordance with publisher policies or with permission. Permission for further reuse of this content should be sought from the publisher or the rights holder. This is the final published version of the work, which was originally published at
dc.subjectRadial velocityen
dc.subjectM dwarf starsen
dc.subjectTransit photometryen
dc.subjectExoplanet formationen
dc.subjectExoplanet structureen
dc.subjectQB Astronomyen
dc.subjectQC Physicsen
dc.titleTOI-1235 b : a keystone super-earth for testing radius valley emergence models around early M dwarfsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.sponsorScience & Technology Facilities Councilen
dc.contributor.sponsorScience & Technology Facilities Councilen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Physics and Astronomyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. St Andrews Centre for Exoplanet Scienceen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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