Reducing toxic reactive carbonyl species in e-cigarette emissions : testing a harm-reduction strategy based on dicarbonyl trapping
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Reducing the concentration of reactive carbonyl species (RCS) in e-cigarette emissions represents a major goal to control their potentially harmful effects. Here, we adopted a novel strategy of trapping carbonyls present in e-cigarette emissions by adding polyphenols in e-liquid formulations. Our work showed that the addition of gallic acid, hydroxytyrosol and epigallocatechin gallate reduced the levels of carbonyls formed in the aerosols of vaped e-cigarettes, including formaldehyde, methylglyoxal and glyoxal. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis highlighted the formation of covalent adducts between aromatic rings and dicarbonyls in both e-liquids and vaped samples, suggesting that dicarbonyls were formed in the e-liquids as degradation products of propylene glycol and glycerol before vaping. Short-term cytotoxic analysis on two lung cellular models showed that dicarbonyl-polyphenol adducts are not cytotoxic, even though carbonyl trapping did not improve cell viability. Our work sheds lights on the ability of polyphenols to trap RCS in high carbonyl e-cigarette emissions, suggesting their potential value in commercial e-liquid formulations.
de Falco , B , Petridis , A , Paramasivan , P , Troise , A D , Scaloni , A , Deeni , Y , Stephens , W E & Fiore , A 2020 , ' Reducing toxic reactive carbonyl species in e-cigarette emissions : testing a harm-reduction strategy based on dicarbonyl trapping ' , RSC Advances , vol. 10 , no. 36 , pp. 21535-21544 . https://doi.org/10.1039/D0RA02138E
Copyright © 2020 The Author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence.
DescriptionThe Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland is thanked for providing funding to support this research (Grant Reference 50408).
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