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dc.contributor.authorSchweinfurth, Manon K.
dc.contributor.authorCall, Josep
dc.identifier.citationSchweinfurth , M K & Call , J 2019 , ' Revisiting the possibility of reciprocal help in non-human primates ' , Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews , vol. 104 , pp. 73-86 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 259478478
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 7852e915-55ad-4734-a79f-58061e7cd7b0
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85068404680
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000483640500009
dc.descriptionThe Swiss National Science Foundation provided funding to MKS (grant number P2BEP3 175269). The European Research Council provided funding to JC (Synergy grant 609819 SOMICS).en
dc.description.abstractReciprocity is a ubiquitous and important human trait. Still, the evolutionary origin is largely unclear, partly because it is believed that our closest living relatives, other primates, do not reciprocate help. Consequently, reciprocity is suggested to have evolved in the human linage only. However, our systematic review of studies investigating reciprocity in non-human primates revealed that, contrary to common perception, there are more positive than negative findings in both experimental and observational studies. Furthermore, we argue that negative findings can provide important insights. We found that reciprocity is not confined to unrelated individuals. In addition, reciprocity can be influenced by the choice of experimental design, relationship quality, social services and temporal scales. Thus, negative findings should not be used as evidence of no reciprocity but as the building blocks for a more comprehensive theory. Based on our review, we conclude that reciprocity in primates is present but underestimated. We close by suggesting further steps that could pave the way for future research aimed at understanding the evolutionary origins of reciprocity.
dc.relation.ispartofNeuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviewsen
dc.rightsCrown Copyright © 2019 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This work is made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectBF Psychologyen
dc.titleRevisiting the possibility of reciprocal help in non-human primatesen
dc.typeJournal itemen
dc.contributor.sponsorEuropean Research Councilen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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