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dc.contributor.authorImmerzeel, W. W.
dc.contributor.authorLutz, A. F.
dc.contributor.authorAndrade, M.
dc.contributor.authorBahl, A.
dc.contributor.authorBiemans, H.
dc.contributor.authorBolch, T.
dc.contributor.authorBrumby, S.
dc.contributor.authorDavies, B. J.
dc.contributor.authorHyde, S.
dc.contributor.authorElmore, A. C.
dc.contributor.authorEmmer, A.
dc.contributor.authorFeng, M.
dc.contributor.authorFernández, A.
dc.contributor.authorHaritashya, U.
dc.contributor.authorKargel, J. S.
dc.contributor.authorKoppes, M.
dc.contributor.authorKraaijenbrink, P. D. A.
dc.contributor.authorKulkarni, A. V.
dc.contributor.authorMayewski, P.
dc.contributor.authorNepal, S.
dc.contributor.authorPacheco, P.
dc.contributor.authorPainter, T. H.
dc.contributor.authorPellicciotti, F.
dc.contributor.authorRajaram, H.
dc.contributor.authorRupper, S.
dc.contributor.authorSinisalo, A.
dc.contributor.authorShrestha, A. B.
dc.contributor.authorViviroli, D.
dc.contributor.authorWada, Y.
dc.contributor.authorXiao, C.
dc.contributor.authorYao, T.
dc.contributor.authorBaillie, J. E. M.
dc.identifier.citationImmerzeel , W W , Lutz , A F , Andrade , M , Bahl , A , Biemans , H , Bolch , T , Brumby , S , Davies , B J , Hyde , S , Elmore , A C , Emmer , A , Feng , M , Fernández , A , Haritashya , U , Kargel , J S , Koppes , M , Kraaijenbrink , P D A , Kulkarni , A V , Mayewski , P , Nepal , S , Pacheco , P , Painter , T H , Pellicciotti , F , Rajaram , H , Rupper , S , Sinisalo , A , Shrestha , A B , Viviroli , D , Wada , Y , Xiao , C , Yao , T & Baillie , J E M 2020 , ' Importance and vulnerability of the world’s water towers ' , Nature , vol. 577 , no. 7790 , pp. 364-369 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 264531075
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 07bea68a-4098-43b9-a32e-ce7fd698ec93
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:A9CD970B307EC8E4FA19F0B2DA4B897D
dc.identifier.otherRIS: Immerzeel2019
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8201-5059/work/66398495
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85077591595
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000509570100032
dc.descriptionThis project was funded as part of the National Geographic Society and Rolex partnership to support a Perpetual Planet.en
dc.description.abstractMountains are the water towers of the world, supplying a substantial part of both natural and anthropogenic water demands1,2. They are highly sensitive and prone to climate change3,4, yet their importance and vulnerability have not been quantified at the global scale. Here, we present a global Water Tower Index, which ranks all water towers in terms of their water-supplying role and the downstream dependence of ecosystems and society. For each tower, we assess its vulnerability related to water stress, governance, hydropolitical tension and future climatic and socio-economic changes. We conclude that the most important water towers are also among the most vulnerable, and that climatic and socio-economic changes will affect them profoundly. This could negatively impact 1.9 billion people living in (0.3 billion) or directly downstream of (1.6 billion) mountain areas. Immediate action is required to safeguard the future of the world’s most important and vulnerable water towers.
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited 2019. This work has been made available online in accordance with publisher policies or with permission. Permission for further reuse of this content should be sought from the publisher or the rights holder. This is the author created accepted manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectGE Environmental Sciencesen
dc.titleImportance and vulnerability of the world’s water towersen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Geography & Sustainable Developmenten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Bell-Edwards Geographic Data Instituteen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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