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dc.contributor.authorKarl, Markus
dc.contributor.authorMeek, Andrew Thomas
dc.contributor.authorMurawski, Caroline
dc.contributor.authorTropf, Laura Christine
dc.contributor.authorKeum, Changmin
dc.contributor.authorSchubert, Marcel
dc.contributor.authorSamuel, Ifor David William
dc.contributor.authorTurnbull, Graham A.
dc.contributor.authorGather, Malte Christian
dc.identifier.citationKarl , M , Meek , A T , Murawski , C , Tropf , L C , Keum , C , Schubert , M , Samuel , I D W , Turnbull , G A & Gather , M C 2020 , ' Distributed feedback lasers based on green fluorescent protein and conformal high refractive index oxide layers ' , Laser & Photonics Reviews , vol. 14 , no. 6 , 2000101 .
dc.descriptionFunding: European Research Council (ERC StG ABLASE, 640012). M.K. and A.M. acknowledge funding from the EPSRC DTG (EP/M506631/1 and EP/M508214/1). L.T. acknowledges studentship funding through the EPSRC CM-CDT (EP/L015110/1). M.S. acknowledges funding from the Royal Society (Dorothy Hodgkin Fellowship, DH160102). I.D.W.S. acknowledges funding from a Royal Society Wolfson research merit award.en
dc.description.abstractFluorescent proteins have emerged as an attractive gain material for lasers, especially for devices requiring biocompatibility. However, due to their optical properties, integration with distributed feedback (DFB) resonators is not readily achievable. Here, a DFB laser with enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) as the gain material is demonstrated by incorporating a thin (65 nm), high refractive index (n = 2.12) ZrO2 interlayer as waveguide core. Deposition of ZrO2 via atomic layer deposition yields a smooth and conformal film as required to minimize optical losses. Lasing emission is obtained from 2D second‐order DFB eGFP lasers at pump power densities above 56.6 kW cm–2 and a wavelength tuning range of Δλ = 51.7 nm is demonstrated. Furthermore, it is shown that in contrast to conventional organic DFB lasers, both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes are accessible. The effective refractive index of these modes can be predicted accurately through optical modelling. Using far‐field imaging, the laser beam profile is studied and TE and TM modes are distinguished.
dc.relation.ispartofLaser & Photonics Reviewsen
dc.subjectBiolasers, atomic layer deposition (ALD)en
dc.subjectDistributed feedback (DFB)en
dc.subjectFar-field mode analysisen
dc.subjectFluorescent proteinsen
dc.subjectTunable lasingen
dc.subjectQC Physicsen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectT Technologyen
dc.titleDistributed feedback lasers based on green fluorescent protein and conformal high refractive index oxide layersen
dc.typeJournal itemen
dc.contributor.sponsorEuropean Research Councilen
dc.contributor.sponsorThe Royal Societyen
dc.contributor.sponsorThe Royal Societyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Physics and Astronomyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Biophotonicsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Condensed Matter Physicsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Sir James Mackenzie Institute for Early Diagnosisen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Biomedical Sciences Research Complexen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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