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dc.contributor.authorGrund, Charlotte
dc.contributor.authorNeumann, Christof
dc.contributor.authorZuberbuehler, Klaus
dc.contributor.authorGruber, Thibaud
dc.identifier.citationGrund , C , Neumann , C , Zuberbuehler , K & Gruber , T 2019 , ' Necessity creates opportunities for chimpanzee tool use ' , Behavioral Ecology , vol. 30 , no. 4 , pp. 1136-1144 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 258304501
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 512b74f8-b4f4-41a3-9407-55e809b059f3
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000493378300029
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85067575042
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-8378-088X/work/64360741
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000493378300029
dc.descriptionThis work was funded by the European Research Council (FP7/2007–2013 / ERC grant number n° 283871) and the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant numbers 310030_143359 to K.Z.; CR13I1_162720, P300PA_164678 to T.G.).en
dc.description.abstractAlthough social transmission mechanisms of animal cultures are well studied, little is known about the origins of behavioral innovations, even in established tool users such as chimpanzees. Previous work has suggested that wild chimpanzees are especially prone to engaging with tools during extended periods of low food availability and after long travel, supporting the hypothesis that cultural innovation is facilitated by necessity revealing opportunities. Here, we tested this hypothesis with a field experiment that directly compared subjects' immediate variation in measures of current energy balance with their interest in a novel foraging problem, liquid honey enclosed in an apparatus accessible by tool use. We found that the previous distance traveled directly predicted subjects' manipulations of both the apparatus and the tool, whereas previous feeding time was negatively correlated to manipulation time. We conclude that "necessity" augments chimpanzees' likelihood of engaging with ecological "opportunities," suggesting that both factors are scaffolding foraging innovation in this and potentially other species.
dc.relation.ispartofBehavioral Ecologyen
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectForaging innovationen
dc.subjectEnergy balanceen
dc.subjectWild chimpanzeesen
dc.subjectGrouping patternen
dc.subjectBF Psychologyen
dc.titleNecessity creates opportunities for chimpanzee tool useen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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