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dc.contributor.authorCure, Charlotte
dc.contributor.authorDoksaeter-Sivle, Lise
dc.contributor.authorVisser, Fleur
dc.contributor.authorWensveen, Paulus Jacobus
dc.contributor.authorIsojunno, Saana
dc.contributor.authorHarris, Catriona M
dc.contributor.authorKvadsheim, Petter
dc.contributor.authorLam, Frans-Peter
dc.contributor.authorMiller, Patrick
dc.identifier.citationCure , C , Doksaeter-Sivle , L , Visser , F , Wensveen , P J , Isojunno , S , Harris , C M , Kvadsheim , P , Lam , F-P & Miller , P 2015 , ' Predator sound playbacks reveal strong avoidance responses in a fight strategist baleen whale ' , Marine Ecology Progress Series , vol. 526 , pp. 267-282 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 156503580
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 1ec079a7-ef93-4c18-adc0-7a8624c9f605
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84928343342
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-2212-2135/work/37031852
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000354394900021
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-9198-2414/work/60887690
dc.description.abstractAnti-predator strategies are often defined as ‘flight’ or ‘fight’, based upon prey anatomical adaptations for size, morphology and weapons, as well as observed behaviours in the presence of predators. The humpback whale Megaptera nova eangliae is considered a ‘fight’ specialist based upon anatomy and observations of grouping behaviour and active defence when attacked by killer whales. However, the early stage of humpback whale anti-predator strategy, when the prey detects the presence of a distant potential predator that may not have perceived it, has never been described. Our aim was to experimentally examine this initial stage of anti-predator responses. Humpbacks are likely to hear well at the frequencies of killer whale vocalisations, thus the perception of killer whale sounds could trigger anti-predator responses. To address this hypothesis, we played mammal-eating killer whale sounds to 8 solitary or paired humpback whales in North Atlantic feeding grounds and monitored their behavioural responses. We found that predator sound playbacks induced a cessation of feeding, a change in the diving pattern and a clear directional and rapid horizontal avoidance away from the speaker. Interestingly, in mothercalf pairs with young calves, the directional horizontal avoidance was atypically alternated by 90 degree turns, which may serve as a mechanism to better track the pre dator or a stealth tactic when more vulnerable animals are present. These results provide experimental evidence that humpback whales can exhibit a strong horizontal avoidance as an initial stage of anti-predator defence, indicating that anti-predator responses may be more graded and mixed than previously recognized.
dc.relation.ispartofMarine Ecology Progress Seriesen
dc.rights© Inter-Research 2015 ·
dc.subjectAnti-predator strategyen
dc.subjectPredator sound playbacksen
dc.subjectMulti-sensor tagen
dc.subjectBehavioural responsesen
dc.subjectHorizontal avoidanceen
dc.subjectBaleen whaleen
dc.subjectHumpback whaleen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.titlePredator sound playbacks reveal strong avoidance responses in a fight strategist baleen whaleen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.sponsorOffice of Naval Researchen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Research into Ecological & Environmental Modellingen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Bioacoustics groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Sea Mammal Research Uniten
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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