Viral DNA binding protein SUMOylation promotes PML nuclear body localization next to viral replication centers
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Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) have developed mechanisms to manipulate cellular antiviral measures to ensure proper DNA replication, with detailed processes far from being understood. Host cells repress incoming viral genomes through a network of transcriptional regulators that normally control cellular homeostasis. The nuclear domains involved are promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies (PML-NBs), interferon-inducible, dot-like nuclear structures and hot spots of SUMO posttranslational modification (PTM). In HAdV-infected cells, such SUMO factories are found in close proximity to newly established viral replication centers (RCs) marked by the adenoviral DNA binding protein (DBP) E2A. Here, we show that E2A is a novel target of host SUMOylation, leading to PTMs supporting E2A function in promoting productive infection. Our data show that SUMOylated E2A interacts with PML. Decreasing SUMO-E2A protein levels by generating HAdV variants mutated in the three main SUMO conjugation motifs (SCMs) led to lower numbers of viral RCs and PML-NBs, and these two structures were no longer next to each other. Our data further indicate that SUMOylated E2A binds the host transcription factor Sp100A, promoting HAdV gene expression, and represents the molecular bridge between PML tracks and adjacent viral RCs. Consequently, E2A SCM mutations repressed late viral gene expression and progeny production. These data highlight a novel mechanism used by the virus to benefit from host antiviral responses by exploiting the cellular SUMO conjugation machinery.
Stubbe , M , Mai , J , Paulus , C , Stubbe , H C , Berscheminski , J , Karimi , M , Hofmann , S , Weber , E , Hadian , K , Hay , R , Groitl , P , Nevels , M , Dobner , T & Schreiner , S 2020 , ' Viral DNA binding protein SUMOylation promotes PML nuclear body localization next to viral replication centers ' , mBio , vol. 11 , no. 2 , e00049-20 . https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00049-20
Copyright © 2020 Stubbe et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.
DescriptionWe thank Kenji Schorpp (Munich, Germany) for support with our yeast work and Roger Everett (Glasgow, United Kingdom) for reagents. We greatly appreciate the scientific discussion with Michelle Vincendeau, Ruth Brack-Werner, and Ulrike Protzer. This work was supported by the Dräger Stiftung eV, the Deutsche Krebshilfe eV, and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG TRR179 P16).
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