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dc.contributor.authorWilkins, Arnold
dc.contributor.authorSmith, Katie
dc.contributor.authorPenacchio, Olivier
dc.identifier.citationWilkins , A , Smith , K & Penacchio , O 2020 , ' The influence of typography on algorithms that predict the speed and comfort of reading ' , Vision , vol. 4 , no. 1 , 18 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 266864872
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 21f483dc-8956-4982-8807-b1111ec78531
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85082072530
dc.description.abstractThe speed with which text can be read is determined in part by the spatial regularity and similarity of vertical letter strokes as assessed by the height of the first peak in the horizontal autocorrelation of the text. The height of this peak was determined for two passages in 20 fonts. The peak was unaffected by the size of the text or its content but was influenced by the font design. Sans serif fonts usually had a lower peak than serif fonts because the presence of serifs usually (but not invariably) resulted in a more even spacing of letter strokes. There were small effects of justification and font-dependent effects of font expansion and compression. 2. The visual comfort of images can be estimated from the extent to which the Fourier amplitude spectrum conforms to 1/f. Students were asked to adjust iBooks to obtain their preferred settings of font and layout. The preference was predicted by the extent to which the Fourier amplitude spectrum approximated 1/f, which in turn was jointly affected by the design of the font, its weight and the ratio of x-height to line separation. Two algorithms based on the autocorrelation and Fourier transformation of text can be usefully applied to any orthography to estimate likely speed and comfort of reading.
dc.rightsCopyright © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
dc.subjectSpatial periodicityen
dc.subjectReading speeden
dc.subjectFourier amplitude spectrumen
dc.subjectBF Psychologyen
dc.titleThe influence of typography on algorithms that predict the speed and comfort of readingen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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