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dc.contributor.authorBowler, Diana E.
dc.contributor.authorBjorkman, Anne D.
dc.contributor.authorDornelas, Maria
dc.contributor.authorMyers-Smith, Isla H.
dc.contributor.authorNavarro, Laetitia M.
dc.contributor.authorNiamir, Aidin
dc.contributor.authorSupp, Sarah R.
dc.contributor.authorWaldock, Conor
dc.contributor.authorWinter, Marten
dc.contributor.authorVellend, Mark
dc.contributor.authorBlowes, Shane A.
dc.contributor.authorBöhning-Gaese, Katrin
dc.contributor.authorBruelheide, Helge
dc.contributor.authorElahi, Robin
dc.contributor.authorAntão, Laura H.
dc.contributor.authorHines, Jes
dc.contributor.authorIsbell, Forest
dc.contributor.authorJones, Holly P.
dc.contributor.authorMagurran, Anne E.
dc.contributor.authorCabral, Juliano Sarmento
dc.contributor.authorBates, Amanda E.
dc.identifier.citationBowler , D E , Bjorkman , A D , Dornelas , M , Myers-Smith , I H , Navarro , L M , Niamir , A , Supp , S R , Waldock , C , Winter , M , Vellend , M , Blowes , S A , Böhning-Gaese , K , Bruelheide , H , Elahi , R , Antão , L H , Hines , J , Isbell , F , Jones , H P , Magurran , A E , Cabral , J S & Bates , A E 2020 , ' Mapping human pressures on biodiversity across the planet uncovers anthropogenic threat complexes ' , People and Nature , vol. Early View , pp. 1-15 .
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:F33AE4D0596BE38F31A3077668E3D989
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-0036-2795/work/70233913
dc.descriptionFunding: German Research Foundation. Grant Numbers: BO 1221/2, 3‐1;National Science Foundation. Grant Number: NSF 1400911; Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia. Grant Number: POPH/FSE SFRH/BD/90469/2012; Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation; Danish Council for Independent Research—Natural Sciences. Grant Number: DFF 4181‐00565; Scottish Funding Council. Grant Number: HR09011; ERC. Grant Numbers: 250189, 727440; Natural Environmental Research Council. Grant Number: NE/L002531/en
dc.description.abstract1. Climate change and other anthropogenic drivers of biodiversity change are unequally distributed across the world. Overlap in the distributions of different drivers have important implications for biodiversity change attribution and the potential for interactive effects. However, the spatial relationships among different drivers and whether they differ between the terrestrial and marine realm has yet to be examined. 2.We compiled global gridded datasets on climate change, land‐use, resource exploitation, pollution, alien species potential and human population density. We used multivariate statistics to examine the spatial relationships among the drivers and to characterize the typical combinations of drivers experienced by different regions of the world. 3. We found stronger positive correlations among drivers in the terrestrial than in the marine realm, leading to areas with high intensities of multiple drivers on land. Climate change tended to be negatively correlated with other drivers in the terrestrial realm (e.g. in the tundra and boreal forest with high climate change but low human use and pollution), whereas the opposite was true in the marine realm (e.g. in the Indo‐Pacific with high climate change and high fishing). 4. We show that different regions of the world can be defined by Anthropogenic Threat Complexes (ATCs), distinguished by different sets of drivers with varying intensities. We identify 11 ATCs that can be used to test hypotheses about patterns of biodiversity and ecosystem change, especially about the joint effects of multiple drivers. 5. Our global analysis highlights the broad conservation priorities needed to mitigate the impacts of anthropogenic change, with different priorities emerging on land and in the ocean, and in different parts of the world.
dc.relation.ispartofPeople and Natureen
dc.subjectBiodiversity threatsen
dc.subjectDirect driversen
dc.subjectGlobal changeen
dc.subjectGF Human ecology. Anthropogeographyen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectSDG 13 - Climate Actionen
dc.subjectSDG 14 - Life Below Wateren
dc.subjectSDG 15 - Life on Landen
dc.titleMapping human pressures on biodiversity across the planet uncovers anthropogenic threat complexesen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.sponsorEuropean Research Councilen
dc.contributor.sponsorEuropean Research Councilen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Biological Diversityen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Fish Behaviour and Biodiversity Research Groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. St Andrews Sustainability Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Research into Ecological & Environmental Modellingen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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