Show simple item record

Files in this item


Item metadata

dc.contributor.authorGrueneisen, Sebastian
dc.contributor.authorDuguid, Shona
dc.contributor.authorSaur, Heiko
dc.contributor.authorTomasello, Michael
dc.identifier.citationGrueneisen , S , Duguid , S , Saur , H & Tomasello , M 2017 , ' Children, chimpanzees, and bonobos adjust the visibility of their actions for cooperators and competitors ' , Scientific Reports , vol. 7 , 8504 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 265941669
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: ee5dc4de-4390-44c2-9f9c-0dbc1b63a4d2
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85027858149
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 28819263
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-4844-0673/work/67919867
dc.description.abstractChimpanzees and bonobos are highly capable of tracking other's mental states. It has been proposed, however, that in contrast to humans, chimpanzees are only able to do this in competitive interactions but this has rarely been directly tested. Here, pairs of chimpanzees or bonobos (Study 1) and 4-year-old children (Study 2) were presented with two almost identical tasks differing only regarding the social context. In the cooperation condition, players' interests were matched: they had to make corresponding choices to be mutually rewarded. To facilitate coordination, subjects should thus make their actions visible to their partner whose view was partially occluded. In the competition condition, players' interests were directly opposed: the partner tried to match the subject's choice but subjects were only rewarded if they chose differently, so that they benefited from hiding their actions. The apes successfully adapted their decisions to the social context and their performance was markedly better in the cooperation condition. Children also distinguished between the two contexts, but somewhat surprisingly, performed better in the competitive condition. These findings demonstrate experimentally that chimpanzees and bonobos can take into account what others can see in cooperative interactions. Their social-cognitive skills are thus more flexible than previously assumed.
dc.relation.ispartofScientific Reportsen
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s) 2017. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
dc.subjectBF Psychologyen
dc.titleChildren, chimpanzees, and bonobos adjust the visibility of their actions for cooperators and competitorsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record