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dc.contributor.authorAdamson, Catherine S
dc.contributor.authorNevels, Michael Martin
dc.identifier.citationAdamson , C S & Nevels , M M 2020 , ' Bright and early : inhibiting human cytomegalovirus by targeting major immediate-early gene expression or protein function ' , Viruses , vol. 12 , no. 1 , 110 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 265462751
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 24327583-9753-4661-ac7b-65877645ec45
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85078282559
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000515930700011
dc.descriptionFunding: UK Medical Research Council, grant number MR/P022146/1 (M.M.N.).en
dc.description.abstractThe human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), one of eight human herpesviruses, establishes lifelong latent infections in most people worldwide. Primary or reactivated HCMV infections cause severe disease in immunosuppressed patients and congenital defects in children. There is no vaccine for HCMV, and the currently approved antivirals come with major limitations. Most approved HCMV antivirals target late molecular processes in the viral replication cycle including DNA replication and packaging. “Bright and early” events in HCMV infection have not been exploited for systemic prevention or treatment of disease. Initiation of HCMV replication depends on transcription from the viral major immediate-early (IE) gene. Alternative transcripts produced from this gene give rise to the IE1 and IE2 families of viral proteins, which localize to the host cell nucleus.The IE1 and IE2 proteins are believed to control all subsequent early and late events in HCMV replication, including reactivation from latency, in part by antagonizing intrinsic and innate immune responses. Here we provide an update on the regulation of major IE gene expression and the functions of IE1 and IE2 proteins. We will relate this insight to experimental approaches that target IE gene expression or protein function via molecular gene silencing and editing or small chemical inhibitors.
dc.rightsCopyright © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
dc.subjectRNA interferenceen
dc.subjectSmall moleculeen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectQR355 Virologyen
dc.subjectRM Therapeutics. Pharmacologyen
dc.titleBright and early : inhibiting human cytomegalovirus by targeting major immediate-early gene expression or protein functionen
dc.typeJournal itemen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Biomedical Sciences Research Complexen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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