On the origin of proteins in human drusen : the meet, greet and stick hypothesis
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Retinal drusen formation is not only a clinical hallmark for the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) but also for other disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and renal diseases. The initiation and growth of drusen is poorly understood. Attention has focused on lipids and minerals, but relatively little is known about the origin of drusen-associated proteins and how they are retained in the space between the basal lamina of the retinal pigment epithelium and the inner collagenous layer space (sub-RPE-BL space). While some authors suggested that drusen proteins are mainly derived from cellular debris from processed photoreceptor outer segments and the RPE, others suggest a choroidal cell or blood origin. Here, we reviewed and supplement the existing literature on the molecular composition of the retina/choroid complex, to gain a more complete understanding of the sources of proteins in drusen. These “drusenomics” studies showed that a considerable proportion of currently identified drusen proteins is uniquely originating from the blood. A smaller, but still large fraction of drusen proteins comes from both blood and/or RPE. Only a small proportion of drusen proteins is uniquely derived from the photoreceptors or choroid. We next evaluated how drusen components may “meet, greet and stick” to each other and/or to structures like hydroxyapatite spherules to form macroscopic deposits in the sub-RPE-BL space. Finally, we discuss implications of our findings with respect to the previously proposed homology between drusenogenesis in AMD and plaque formation in atherosclerosis.
Bergen , A A , Arya , S , Koster , C , Pilgrim , M G , Wiatrek-Moumoulidis , D , van der Spek , P , Hauck , S M , Boon , C J F , Emri , E , Stewart , A J & Lengyel , I 2019 , ' On the origin of proteins in human drusen : the meet, greet and stick hypothesis ' , Progress in Retinal and Eye Research , vol. 70 , pp. 55-84 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.12.003
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Copyright © 2018 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.12.003
DescriptionThis research was part-supported by de Algemene Nederlandse Vereniging ter Voorkoming van Blindheid (ANVVB), de Stichting Blinden-Penning, de Gelderse Blinden Stichting, de Landelijke Stichting voor Blinden en Slechtzienden (LSBS), Stichting Oogfonds Nederland, Stichting MD Fonds and Stichting Retina Nederland Fonds (represented by Uitzicht, grants 2011-6 and 2014-7 to A.A.B.), de Rotterdamse Stichting Blindenbelangen (RSB), de Haagse Stichting Blindenhulp, Stichting Lijf en Leven, Stichting voor Ooglijders (to A.A.B.); ZonMW grant nr 446001002 (to A.A.B. and C.K.); the Bill Brown Charitable Trust, Moorfields Eye Hospital Special Trustees, Mercer Fund from Fight for Sight, the Eye-Risk project funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 634479 (I.L. and E.E.), Fight for Sight project grant (I.L. and A.S.), the Bright Focus Foundation grant nr M2015370 (to SMH).
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