PoRAP : an energy aware protocol for cyclic monitoring WSNs
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This work starts from the proposition that it is beneficial to conserve communication energy in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). For WSNs there is an added incentive for energy-efficient communication. The power supply of a sensor is often finite and small. Replenishing the power may be impractical and is likely to be costly. Wireless Sensor Networks are an important area of research. Data about the physical environment may be collected from hostile or friendly environments. Data is then transmitted to a destination without the need for communication cables. There are power and resource constraints upon WSNs, in addition WSN networks are often application specific. Different applications will often have different requirements. Further, WSNs are a shared medium system. The features of the MAC (Medium Access Control) protocol together with the application behaviour shape the communication states of the node. As each of these states have different power requirements the MAC protocol impacts upon the operation and power consumption efficiency. This work focuses on the development of an energy conservation protocol for WSNs where direct communication between sources and a base station is feasible. Whilst the multi-hop approach has been regarded as the underlying communication paradigm in WSNs, there are some scenarios where direct communication is applicable and a significant amount of communication energy can be saved. The Power & Reliability Aware Protocol has been developed. Its main objectives are to provide efficient data communication by means of energy conservation without sacrificing required reliability. This has been achieved by using direct communication, adaptive power adaptation and intelligent scheduling. The results of simulations illustrate the significance of communication energy and adaptive transmission. The relationship between Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and Packet Reception Rate (PRR) metrics is established and used to identify when power adaptation is required. The experimental results demonstrate an optimal region where lower power can be used without further reduction in the PRR. Communication delays depend upon the packet size whilst two-way propagation delay is very small. Accurate scheduling is achieved through monitoring the clock drift. A set of experiments were carried out to study benefits of direct vs. multi-hop communication. Significant transmitting current can be conserved if the direct communication is used. PoRAP is compared to Sensor-MAC (S-MAC), Berkeley-MAC (B-MAC) and Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA). Parameter settings used in the Great Duck Island (GDI) a production habitat monitoring WSNs were applied. PoRAP consumes the least amount of energy.
Thesis, PhD Doctor of Philosophy