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dc.contributor.authorLamanna, Camillo
dc.contributor.authorLa Manna, Manfredi M A
dc.identifier.citationLamanna , C & La Manna , M M A 2019 , ' The fundamental problem blocking open access and how to overcome it : the BitViews project ' , Insights: the UKSG Journal , vol. 32 , no. 1 , 34 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 263189745
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 3df4f3dc-fb04-447c-a43d-cbeefb8dfd42
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-5542-7114/work/65014102
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000497761600001
dc.description.abstractIn our view the fundamental obstacle to open access (OA) is the lack of any incentive-based mechanism that unbundles authors’ accepted manuscripts (AMs) from articles (VoRs). The former can be seen as the public good that ought to be openly accessible, whereas the latter is owned by publishers and rightly paywall-restricted. We propose one such mechanism to overcome this obstacle: BitViews. BitViews is a blockchain-based application that aims to revolutionize the OA publishing ecosystem. Currently, the main academic currency of value is the citation. There have been attempts in the past to create a second currency whose measure is the online usage of research materials (e.g., PIRUS). However, these have failed due to two problems. Firstly, it has been impossible to find a single agency willing to co-ordinate and fund the validation and collation of global online usage data. Secondly, online usage metrics have lacked transparency in how they filter non-human online activity. BitViews is a novel solution which uses blockchain technology to bypass both problems: online AM usage will be recorded on a public, distributed ledger, obviating the need for a central responsible agency, and the rules governing activity-filtering will be part of the open-source BitViews blockchain application, creating complete transparency. Once online AM usage has measurable value, researchers will be incentivized to promote and disseminate AMs. This will fundamentally re-orient the academic publishing ecosystem. A key feature of BitViews is that its success (or failure) is wholly and exclusively in the hands of the worldwide community of university and research libraries, as we suggest that it ought to be financed by conditional crowdfunding, whereby the actual financial commitment of each contributing library depends on the total amount raised. If the financing target is not reached, then all contributions are returned in full and if the target is over-fulfilled, then the surplus is returned pro rata.
dc.relation.ispartofInsights: the UKSG Journalen
dc.rightsCopyright: © 2019 Camillo Lamanna and Manfredi La Manna. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence (, which permits unrestricted use and distribution provided the original author and source are credited.en
dc.subjectOpen accessen
dc.subjectScholarly Communicationen
dc.subjectImpact metricsen
dc.subjectZA4050 Electronic information resourcesen
dc.subjectComputer Science(all)en
dc.titleThe fundamental problem blocking open access and how to overcome it : the BitViews projecten
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Economics and Financeen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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