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dc.contributor.authorVanWormer, E.
dc.contributor.authorMazet, J. A. K.
dc.contributor.authorHall, A.
dc.contributor.authorGill, V. A.
dc.contributor.authorBoveng, P. L.
dc.contributor.authorLondon, J. M.
dc.contributor.authorGelatt, T.
dc.contributor.authorFadely, B. S.
dc.contributor.authorLander, M. E.
dc.contributor.authorSterling, J.
dc.contributor.authorBurkanov, V. N.
dc.contributor.authorReam, R. R.
dc.contributor.authorBrock, P. M.
dc.contributor.authorRea, L. D.
dc.contributor.authorSmith, B. R.
dc.contributor.authorJeffers, A.
dc.contributor.authorHenstock, M.
dc.contributor.authorRehberg, M. J.
dc.contributor.authorBurek-Huntington, K. A.
dc.contributor.authorCosby, S. L.
dc.contributor.authorHammond, J. A.
dc.contributor.authorGoldstein, T.
dc.date.accessioned2019-11-12T16:30:05Z
dc.date.available2019-11-12T16:30:05Z
dc.date.issued2019-11-07
dc.identifier.citationVanWormer , E , Mazet , J A K , Hall , A , Gill , V A , Boveng , P L , London , J M , Gelatt , T , Fadely , B S , Lander , M E , Sterling , J , Burkanov , V N , Ream , R R , Brock , P M , Rea , L D , Smith , B R , Jeffers , A , Henstock , M , Rehberg , M J , Burek-Huntington , K A , Cosby , S L , Hammond , J A & Goldstein , T 2019 , ' Viral emergence in marine mammals in the North Pacific may be linked to Arctic sea ice reduction ' , Scientific Reports , vol. 9 , 15569 . https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-51699-4en
dc.identifier.issn2045-2322
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 263088443
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: df0b7276-2591-4ddc-9255-4ba81ebec632
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:868A82BB9E80461F9EBC9CBEB1567D27
dc.identifier.otherRIS: VanWormer2019
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85074703538
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-7562-1771/work/64697465
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000494946100001
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10023/18907
dc.descriptionThis study was supported by the Morris Animal Foundation (grant D09ZO-019), whose mission is to advance the science of animal health, and the NOAA Oceans and Human Health Graduate Traineeship Program. Additional support was provided by the Alaska Fisheries Science Center Marine Mammal Laboratory and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. JAH and MH were supported by UKRI-BBSRC awards BBS/E/I/00007030, BBS/E/I/00007037, BBS/E/I/00007038 and BBS/E/I/00007039.en
dc.description.abstractClimate change-driven alterations in Arctic environments can influence habitat availability, species distributions and interactions, and the breeding, foraging, and health of marine mammals. Phocine distemper virus (PDV), which has caused extensive mortality in Atlantic seals, was confirmed in sea otters in the North Pacific Ocean in 2004, raising the question of whether reductions in sea ice could increase contact between Arctic and sub-Arctic marine mammals and lead to viral transmission across the Arctic Ocean. Using data on PDV exposure and infection and animal movement in sympatric seal, sea lion, and sea otter species sampled in the North Pacific Ocean from 2001–2016, we investigated the timing of PDV introduction, risk factors associated with PDV emergence, and patterns of transmission following introduction. We identified widespread exposure to and infection with PDV across the North Pacific Ocean beginning in 2003 with a second peak of PDV exposure and infection in 2009; viral transmission across sympatric marine mammal species; and association of PDV exposure and infection with reductions in Arctic sea ice extent. Peaks of PDV exposure and infection following 2003 may reflect additional viral introductions among the diverse marine mammals in the North Pacific Ocean linked to change in Arctic sea ice extent.
dc.format.extent11
dc.language.isoeng
dc.relation.ispartofScientific Reportsen
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s) 2019. Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.en
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectDASen
dc.subject.lccQH301en
dc.titleViral emergence in marine mammals in the North Pacific may be linked to Arctic sea ice reductionen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Sea Mammal Research Uniten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-51699-4
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden


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