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dc.contributor.authorShuangbin, L.
dc.contributor.authorJiang, Cairong
dc.contributor.authorIrvine, John T.S.
dc.contributor.editorEguchi, K.
dc.contributor.editorSinghal, S. C.
dc.identifier.citationShuangbin , L , Jiang , C & Irvine , J T S 2019 , Investigation of tin liquid anode on hybrid direct carbon fuel cells . in K Eguchi & S C Singhal (eds) , Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 16, SOFC XVI . ECS Transactions , no. 1 , vol. 91 , Electrochemical Society, Inc. , pp. 523-531 , 16th International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, SOFC XVI , Kyoto , Japan , 8/09/19 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 262433510
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 5f02d4d9-598f-4426-8251-48363e5748b5
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85073197194
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8394-3359/work/68280752
dc.description.abstractA novel carbon fuel cell mode was designed for improving the cell performance on hybrid direct carbon fuel cells (HDCFCs). In this paper, the effects of Sn phase as the liquid anode on HDCFCs' performance was investigated. The comparative results indicated that the cell performance was strongly dependent on the amount of Sn loading. With selectivity of different weight ratios, 20 wt% Sn additive was optimized to be the best behavior, corresponding to considerably decreased ohmic and polarization resistance. However, other compositions showed inferior performance than that of Sn-free anode, probably due to the Li2SnO3 impurity formation impeding catalytic properties of liquid Sn and Li-K salt. Stability testing further implied the cell with 20 wt% Sn addition was the best choice because of maximum fuel efficiency and reasonable durability. Based on these results, the possible completing mechanisms of Sn participating in electrochemical reaction on HDCFCs were proposed.
dc.publisherElectrochemical Society, Inc.
dc.relation.ispartofSolid Oxide Fuel Cells 16, SOFC XVIen
dc.relation.ispartofseriesECS Transactionsen
dc.rights© Copyright 2019 ECS - The Electrochemical Society. This work has been made available online in accordance with publisher policies or with permission. Permission for further reuse of this content should be sought from the publisher or the rights holder. This is the author created accepted manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectQD Chemistryen
dc.subjectTK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineeringen
dc.titleInvestigation of tin liquid anode on hybrid direct carbon fuel cellsen
dc.typeConference itemen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Chemistryen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Designer Quantum Materialsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. EaSTCHEMen

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