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dc.contributor.authorRobb, Calum
dc.contributor.authorDyrynda, Elisabeth
dc.contributor.authorGray, Robert
dc.contributor.authorRossi, Adriano
dc.contributor.authorSmith, Valerie Jane
dc.identifier.citationRobb , C , Dyrynda , E , Gray , R , Rossi , A & Smith , V J 2014 , ' Invertebrate extracellular phagocyte traps show that chromatin is an ancient defence weapon ' , Nature Communications , vol. 5 , 4627 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 150656653
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 73ccf1af-e078-467c-92e2-b743c8457ba0
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84907367123
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000341057000018
dc.descriptionAuthors thankthe School of Life Sciences (HWU) for the Principal’s Sports Award and a PhD Scholarship to CTR. RDG is funded by a Wellcome Trust fellowship (WT093767). We acknowledge funding from the Medical Research Council, UK (G0601481 and MR/K013386/1) for A.G.R.en
dc.description.abstractControlled release of chromatin from the nuclei of inflammatory cells is a process that entraps and kills microorganisms in the extracellular environment. Now termed ETosis, it is important for innate immunity in vertebrates. Paradoxically, however, in mammals, it can also contribute to certain pathologies. Here we show that ETosis occurs in several invertebrate species, including, remarkably, an acoelomate. Our findings reveal that the phenomenon is primordial and predates the evolution of the coelom. In invertebrates, the released chromatin participates in defence not only by ensnaring microorganisms and externalizing antibacterial histones together with other haemocyte-derived defence factors, but crucially, also provides the scaffold on which intact haemocytes assemble during encapsulation; a response that sequesters and kills potential pathogens infecting the body cavity. This insight into the early origin of ETosis identifies it as a very ancient process that helps explain some of its detrimental effects in mammals.
dc.relation.ispartofNature Communicationsen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2014, Springer Nature. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.titleInvertebrate extracellular phagocyte traps show that chromatin is an ancient defence weaponen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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