The collapse of a molecular cloud core to stellar densities using radiation non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics
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We present results from radiation non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) calculations that follow the collapse of rotating, magnetized, molecular cloud cores to stellar densities. These are the first such calculations to include all three non-ideal effects: ambipolar diffusion, Ohmic resistivity, and the Hall effect. We employ an ionization model in which cosmic ray ionization dominates at low temperatures and thermal ionization takes over at high temperatures. We explore the effects of varying the cosmic ray ionization rate from ζcr = 10−10 to 10−16 s−1. Models with ionization rates ≳10−12 s−1 produce results that are indistinguishable from ideal MHD. Decreasing the cosmic ray ionization rate extends the lifetime of the first hydrostatic core up to a factor of 2, but the lifetimes are still substantially shorter than those obtained without magnetic fields. Outflows from the first hydrostatic core phase are launched in all models, but the outflows become broader and slower as the ionization rate is reduced. The outflow morphology following stellar core formation is complex and strongly dependent on the cosmic ray ionization rate. Calculations with high ionization rates quickly produce a fast (≈14 km s−1) bipolar outflow that is distinct from the first core outflow, but with the lowest ionization rate, a slower (≈3−4 km s−1) conical outflow develops gradually and seamlessly merges into the first core outflow.
Wurster , J , Bate , M R & Price , D J 2018 , ' The collapse of a molecular cloud core to stellar densities using radiation non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics ' , Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society , vol. 475 , no. 2 , pp. 1859-1880 . https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stx3339
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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