Transit timing variations in the WASP-4 planetary system
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Transits in the planetary system WASP-4 were recently found to occur 80 s earlier than expected in observations from the TESS satellite. We present 22 new times of mid-transit that confirm the existence of transit timing variations, and are well fitted by a quadratic ephemeris with period decay dP/dt = −9.2 ± 1.1 ms yr−1. We rule out instrumental issues, stellar activity and the Applegate mechanism as possible causes. The light-time effect is also not favoured due to the non-detection of changes in the systemic velocity. Orbital decay and apsidal precession are plausible but unproven. WASP-4 b is only the third hot Jupiter known to show transit timing variations to high confidence. We discuss a variety of observations of this and other planetary systems that would be useful in improving our understanding of WASP-4 in particular and orbital decay in general.
Southworth , J , Dominik , M , Jorgensen , U G , Andersen , M I , Bozza , V , Burgdorf , M J , D'Ago , G , Dib , S , Figuera Jaimes , R , Fujii , Y I , Gill , S , Haikala , L K , Hinse , T C , Hundertmark , M , Khalouei , E , Korhonen , H , Longa-Peña , P , Mancini , L , Peixinho , N , Rabus , M , Rahvar , S , Sajadian , S , Skottfelt , J , Snodgrass , C , Spyratos , P , Tregloan-Reed , J , Unda-Sanzana , E & von Essen , C 2019 , ' Transit timing variations in the WASP-4 planetary system ' , Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society , vol. 490 , no. 3 , pp. 4230-4236 . https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz2602
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Copyright © 2019 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. This work has been made available online in accordance with publisher policies or with permission. Permission for further reuse of this content should be sought from the publisher or the rights holder. This is the author created accepted manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz2602
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