Novel cambinol analogues as potential anticancer agents : an improved understanding of sirtuin isoform selectivity
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SIRT1 and SIRT2 are two NAD⁺-dependent deacetylases which negatively modulate the activity of p53, a protein which is involved in cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis following genotoxic stress. Part I of the thesis describes the exploration of the chemical space around a reported unselective and modest inhibitor of SIRT1 and SIRT2 with the aim of improving the selectivity and potency of the inhibitor against the two isoforms. Particular emphasis is placed upon understanding the mode of binding of the novel analogues within the active site of the enzymes. Chapter 1 reviews the physiological roles of class III NAD⁺-dependent deacetylases, also known as sirtuins. In particular, the application of SIRT1 and SIRT2 inhibitors as potential anticancer agents is described. Amongst these, only cambinol and the tenovins showed in vivo activity in a mouse xenograft model. Previously only one analogue of cambinol had been reported in the literature. Chapter 2 describes the development of a small collection of novel cambinol analogues (First Generation Studies). The role played by different substituents at the phenyl group and at the N-1 of the thiouracil core is discussed. Along with the synthesis and structure activity relationship (SAR) associated with the core structure, in-cell experiments intended to confirm the activity of the most active compounds are reported. Chapter 3 provides a rationalisation for the SAR discussed in Chapter 2. Based on computational molecular modelling studies (GOLD), the activity of the most potent and selective SIRT2 inhibitors is explained. Two series of novel cambinol analogues were designed (Second and Third Generation Analogues) in order to assess further the proposed binding mode. Chapter 4 focuses on the development of the “Second Generation” analogues, characterised by the presence of lipophilic substituents at the sulfur atom and at the N-3 position of the thiouracil core. The synthesis, biological evaluation and SAR are discussed in detail. Chapter 5 reports the development of the “Third Generation” analogues, characterised by either a benzyl group or para-alkoxy-substituted benzyl group at the N-1 position of cambinol. Once again, the synthesis, biological evaluation and SAR data are presented. An improved understanding of the mode of binding of the novel compounds is proposed based on molecular dynamics (MD) studies. Indole-based alkaloids, such as Vincristine and Vinblastine, are well known for their anticancer activity. Recently, the anticancer activity of members of the calycanthaceous family of alkaloids has been discovered. Part II of the thesis focuses on model studies aimed at developing the total synthesis of one of these compounds, perophoramidine. Chapter 7 provides an overview of the calycanthaceous alkaloid family of natural products, including their biological properties. The structural features of perophoramidine, along with the previously reported synthetic studies are outlined. Chapter 8 describes the synthesis of an advanced intermediate in the total synthesis of dehaloperophoramidine, a structural analogue of perophoramidine Problems encountered, optimisation studies and the synthesis of a re-designed intermediate are also reported in this chapter.
Thesis, PhD Doctor of Philosophy
Embargo Date: Print and electronic copy restricted until 18th November 2016
Embargo Reason: Thesis restricted in accordance with University regulations
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