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dc.contributor.authorCasasayas-Barris, N.
dc.contributor.authorPalle, E.
dc.contributor.authorYan, F.
dc.contributor.authorChen, G.
dc.contributor.authorKohl, S.
dc.contributor.authorStangret, M.
dc.contributor.authorParviainen, H.
dc.contributor.authorHelling, Ch.
dc.contributor.authorWatanabe, N.
dc.contributor.authorCzesla, S.
dc.contributor.authorFukui, A.
dc.contributor.authorMontanes-Rodriguez, P.
dc.contributor.authorNagel, E.
dc.contributor.authorNarita, N.
dc.contributor.authorNortmann, L.
dc.contributor.authorNowak, G.
dc.contributor.authorSchmitt, J. H. M. M.
dc.contributor.authorZapatero Osorio, M. R.
dc.identifier.citationCasasayas-Barris , N , Palle , E , Yan , F , Chen , G , Kohl , S , Stangret , M , Parviainen , H , Helling , C , Watanabe , N , Czesla , S , Fukui , A , Montanes-Rodriguez , P , Nagel , E , Narita , N , Nortmann , L , Nowak , G , Schmitt , J H M M & Zapatero Osorio , M R 2019 , ' Atmospheric characterization of the ultra-hot Jupiter MASCARA-2b/KELT-20b : Detection of CaII, FeII, NaI, and the Balmer series of H (H α , H β , and H γ ) with high-dispersion transit spectroscopy ' , Astronomy & Astrophysics , vol. 628 , A9 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 260668820
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 66d09ab5-2808-4abd-8b51-98e9fae06599
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000477562100001
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000477562100001
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85070062131
dc.description.abstractUltra-hot Jupiters orbit very close to their host star and consequently receive strong irradiation, causing their atmospheric chemistry to be different from the common gas giants. Here, we have studied the atmosphere of one of these particular hot planets, MASCARA-2b/KELT-20b, using four transit observations with high resolution spectroscopy facilities. Three of these observations were performed with HARPS-N and one with CARMENES. Additionally, we simultaneously observed one of the transits with MuSCAT2 to monitor possible spots in the stellar surface. At high resolution, the transmission residuals show the effects of Rossiter-McLaughlin and centre-to-limb variations from the stellar lines profiles, which we have corrected to finally extract the transmission spectra of the planet. We clearly observe the absorption features of CaII, FeII, NaI, Hα, and Hβ in the atmosphere of MASCARA-2b, and indications of Hγ and MgI at low signal-to-noise ratio. In the case of NaI, the true absorption is difficult to disentangle from the strong telluric and interstellar contamination. The results obtained with CARMENES and HARPS-N are consistent, measuring an Hα absorption depth of 0.68 ± 0.05 and 0.59 ± 0.07%, and NaI absorption of 0.11 ± 0.04 and 0.09 ± 0.05% for a 0.75 Å passband, in the two instruments respectively. The Hα absorption corresponds to ~1.2 Rp, which implies an expanded atmosphere, as a result of the gas heating caused by the irradiation received from the host star. For Hβ and Hγ only HARPS-N covers this wavelength range, measuring an absorption depth of 0.28 ± 0.06 and 0.21 ± 0.07%, respectively. For CaII, only CARMENES covers this wavelength range measuring an absorption depth of 0.28 ± 0.05, 0.41 ± 0.05 and 0.27 ± 0.06% for CaII λ8498Å, λ8542Å and λ8662Å lines, respectively. Three additional absorption lines of FeII are observed in the transmission spectrum by HARPS-N (partially covered by CARMENES), measuring an average absorption depth of 0.08 ± 0.04% (0.75 Å passband). The results presented here are consistent with theoretical models of ultra-hot Jupiters atmospheres, suggesting the emergence of an ionised gas on the day-side of such planets. Calcium and iron, together with other elements, are expected to be singly ionised at these temperatures and be more numerous than its neutral state. The Calcium triplet lines are detected here for the first time in transmission in an exoplanet atmosphere.
dc.relation.ispartofAstronomy & Astrophysicsen
dc.rightsCopyright © ESO 2019. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectPlanets and satellites: atmospheresen
dc.subjectPlanetary systemsen
dc.subjectMethods: observationalen
dc.subjectTechniques: spectroscopicen
dc.subjectPlanets and satellites: individual: MASCARA-2ben
dc.subjectPlanets and satellites: individual: KELT-20ben
dc.subjectQB Astronomyen
dc.subjectQC Physicsen
dc.titleAtmospheric characterization of the ultra-hot Jupiter MASCARA-2b/KELT-20b : Detection of CaII, FeII, NaI, and the Balmer series of H (Hα, Hβ, and Hγ) with high-dispersion transit spectroscopyen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.St Andrews Centre for Exoplanet Scienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Physics and Astronomyen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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