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dc.contributor.authorSánchez-Amaro, Alex
dc.contributor.authorDuguid, Shona
dc.contributor.authorCall, Josep
dc.contributor.authorTomasello, Michael
dc.identifier.citationSánchez-Amaro , A , Duguid , S , Call , J & Tomasello , M 2018 , ' Chimpanzees and children avoid mutual defection in a social dilemma ' , Evolution and Human Behavior , vol. In press .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 255030192
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: cc847363-8389-47bf-9049-1ea94a91e455
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85051134688
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8597-8336/work/47356694
dc.descriptionA.S. was partially supported by a LaCaixa-DAAD grant (13/94418). J.C. was partially supported by an ERC-Synergy grant SOMICS grant 609819.en
dc.description.abstractCooperation often comes with the temptation to defect and benefit at the cost of others. This tension between cooperation and defection is best captured in social dilemmas like the Prisoner's Dilemma. Adult humans have specific strategies to maintain cooperation during Prisoner's Dilemma interactions. Yet, little is known about the ontogenetic and phylogenetic origins of human decision-making strategies in conflict scenarios. To shed light on this question, we compared the strategies used by chimpanzees and 5-year old children to overcome a social dilemma. In our task, waiting for the partner to act first produced the best results for the subject. Alternatively, they could mutually cooperate and divide the rewards. Our findings indicate that the two species differed substantially in their strategies to solve the task. Chimpanzees became more strategic across the study period by waiting longer to act in the social dilemma. Children developed a more efficient strategy of taking turns to reciprocate their rewards. Moreover, children used specific types of communication to coordinate with their partners. These results suggest that while both species behaved strategically to overcome a conflict situation, only children engaged in active cooperation to solve a social dilemma.
dc.relation.ispartofEvolution and Human Behavioren
dc.rights© 2018 Elsevier Ltd. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at:
dc.subjectSocial dilemmaen
dc.subjectPrisoner's Dilemmaen
dc.subjectBF Psychologyen
dc.subjectQL Zoologyen
dc.subjectRC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatryen
dc.titleChimpanzees and children avoid mutual defection in a social dilemmaen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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