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dc.contributor.authorToohey, Matthew
dc.contributor.authorKrüger, Kirstin
dc.contributor.authorSchmidt, Hauke
dc.contributor.authorTimmreck, Claudia
dc.contributor.authorSigl, Michael
dc.contributor.authorStoffel, Markus
dc.contributor.authorWilson, Rob
dc.date.accessioned2019-07-28T23:41:53Z
dc.date.available2019-07-28T23:41:53Z
dc.date.issued2019-02
dc.identifier.citationToohey , M , Krüger , K , Schmidt , H , Timmreck , C , Sigl , M , Stoffel , M & Wilson , R 2019 , ' Disproportionately strong climate forcing from extratropical explosive volcanic eruptions ' , Nature Geoscience , vol. 12 , no. 2 , pp. 100-107 . https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-018-0286-2en
dc.identifier.issn1752-0908
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 257663346
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 7c7485b2-8312-4775-8983-3a955ac78a04
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:CDAA1F4939A70B68EA093AF899AB3F5A
dc.identifier.otherRIS: Toohey2019
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85060919271
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-4486-8904/work/59953604
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000457194900008
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10023/18187
dc.descriptionFunding: This work was supported by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research in Germany (BMBF) through the research program “MiKlip” (grant nos FKZ:01LP130B, 01LP1130A and 01LP1517B). M.T. additionally acknowledges support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) in the framework of the priority programme “Antarctic Research with comparative investigations in Arctic ice areas” through grant no. TO 967/1-1. K.K. and M.Sigl acknowledge support through the NFR project “VIKINGS” (project no. 275191). C.T. additionally acknowledges support from the European Union project StratoClim (FP7-ENV.2013.6.1-2). Computations were performed at the German Climate Computer Center (DKRZ).en
dc.description.abstractExtratropical volcanic eruptions are commonly thought to be less effective at driving large-scale surface cooling than tropical eruptions. However, recent minor extratropical eruptions have produced a measurable climate impact, and proxy records suggest that the most extreme Northern Hemisphere cold period of the Common Era was initiated by an extratropical eruption in 536 ce. Using ice-core-derived volcanic stratospheric sulfur injections and Northern Hemisphere summer temperature reconstructions from tree rings, we show here that in proportion to their estimated stratospheric sulfur injection, extratropical explosive eruptions since 750 ce have produced stronger hemispheric cooling than tropical eruptions. Stratospheric aerosol simulations demonstrate that for eruptions with a sulfur injection magnitude and height equal to that of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption, extratropical eruptions produce time-integrated radiative forcing anomalies over the Northern Hemisphere extratropics up to 80% greater than tropical eruptions, as decreases in aerosol lifetime are overwhelmed by the enhanced radiative impact associated with the relative confinement of aerosol to a single hemisphere. The model results are consistent with the temperature reconstructions, and elucidate how the radiative forcing produced by extratropical eruptions is strongly dependent on the eruption season and sulfur injection height within the stratosphere.
dc.format.extent10
dc.language.isoeng
dc.relation.ispartofNature Geoscienceen
dc.rights© 2019, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited. This work has been made available online in accordance with the publisher's policies. This is the author created accepted version manuscript following peer review and as such may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-018-0286-2en
dc.subjectGE Environmental Sciencesen
dc.subjectQE Geologyen
dc.subject3rd-DASen
dc.subjectBDCen
dc.subject.lccGEen
dc.subject.lccQEen
dc.titleDisproportionately strong climate forcing from extratropical explosive volcanic eruptionsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPostprinten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Earth & Environmental Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.St Andrews Sustainability Instituteen
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-018-0286-2
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden
dc.date.embargoedUntil2019-07-29


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