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dc.contributor.authorHastie, Gordon
dc.contributor.authorMerchant, Nathan
dc.contributor.authorGoetz, Thomas
dc.contributor.authorRussell, Debbie J. F.
dc.contributor.authorThompson, Paul
dc.contributor.authorJanik, Vincent M.
dc.identifier.citationHastie , G , Merchant , N , Goetz , T , Russell , D J F , Thompson , P & Janik , V M 2019 , ' Effects of impulsive noise on marine mammals : investigating range-dependent risk ' , Ecological Applications , vol. 29 , no. 5 , e01906 .
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-1969-102X/work/58531578
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-9773-2755/work/58531616
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-7894-0121/work/60427873
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-4630-3328/work/71221496
dc.descriptionThis work was funded as part of the Department of Energy and Climate Change’s Offshore Energy Strategic Environmental Assessment programme, with additional resources from the National Capability funding from the Natural Environment Research Council to the Sea Mammal Research Unit (grant no. SMRU1001).en
dc.description.abstractConcerns exist about the impacts of underwater noise on marine mammals. These include auditory damage, which is a significant risk for marine mammals exposed to impulsive sounds such as explosions, pile‐driving, and seismic air guns. Currently, impact assessments use different risk criteria for impulsive and non‐impulsive sounds (e.g., ships, drilling). However, as impulsive sounds dissipate through the environment, they potentially lose hazardous features (e.g., sudden onset) and become non‐impulsive at some distance from the source. Despite management implications, a lack of data on range‐dependent characteristics currently limits their inclusion in impact assessments. We address this using acoustic recordings of seismic air guns and pile‐driving to quantify range dependency in impulsive characteristics using four criteria: (1) rise time < 25 ms; (2) quotient of peak pressure and pulse duration > 5,000 Pa/s; (3) duration < 1 s; (4) crest factor > 15 dB. We demonstrate that some characteristics changed markedly within ranges of ~10 km, and that the mean probability of exceeding criteria 1 and 2 was <0.5 at ranges >3.5 km. In contrast, the mean probability of exceeding criteria 3 remained >0.5 up to ~37.0 km, and the mean probability of exceeding criteria 4 remained <0.5 throughout the range. These results suggest that a proportion of the recorded signals should be defined as impulsive based on each of the criteria, and that some of the criteria change markedly as a result of propagation. However, the impulsive nature of a sound is likely to be a complex interaction of all these criteria, and many other unrelated parameters such as duty cycle, recovery periods, and sound levels will also strongly affect the risk of hearing damage. We recommend future auditory damage studies and impact assessments explicitly consider the ranges at which sounds may lose some of their potentially hazardous characteristics.
dc.relation.ispartofEcological Applicationsen
dc.subjectAuditory damageen
dc.subjectMarine animalsen
dc.subjectPile drivingen
dc.subjectSeismic surveyen
dc.subjectSound propagationen
dc.subjectUnderwater noiseen
dc.subjectGC Oceanographyen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectSDG 14 - Life Below Wateren
dc.titleEffects of impulsive noise on marine mammals : investigating range-dependent risken
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Sea Mammal Research Uniten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Research into Ecological & Environmental Modellingen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Bioacoustics groupen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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